Related to whether we say one variable is causing changes in the other variable, versus other variables that may be related to these two variables.

Confidence interval
An interval of plausible values for a population parameter; the interval of values within the margin of error of a statistic.

The pattern of variation in data.

Related to whether the results from the sample can be generalized to a larger population.

Margin of error
The expected amount of random variation in a statistic; often defined for 95% confidence level.

A numerical result summarizing a population (e.g., mean, proportion).

A larger collection of individuals that we would like to generalize our results to.

The probability of observing a particular outcome in a sample, or more extreme, under a conjecture about the larger population or process.

Random assignment
Using a probability-based method to divide a sample into treatment groups.

Random sampling
Using a probability-based method to select a subset of individuals for the sample from the population.

The collection of individuals on which we collect data.

A numerical result computed from a sample (e.g., mean, proportion).

Statistical significance
A result is statistically significant if it is unlikely to arise by chance alone.


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