Factors that undermine the ability to draw causal inferences from an experiment.
Measures the association between two variables, or how they go together.
The variable the researcher measures but does not manipulate in an experiment.
When the experimenter’s expectations influence the outcome of a study.
The variable the researcher manipulates and controls in an experiment.
A study that follows the same group of individuals over time.
How researchers specifically measure a concept.
When participants behave in a way that they think the experimenter wants them to behave.
When receiving special treatment or something new affects human behavior.
An experiment that does not require random assignment to conditions.
Assigning participants to receive different conditions of an experiment by chance.