UNIVERSITY OF PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 2019-20 Academic Calendar

23 Graduate Programs and Courses

Master of Science

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine MSc Program http://upei.ca/avc/graduatestudies

Faculty of Science MSc Program http://upei.ca/science/graduatestudies

A) GENERAL STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAM

The MSc degree of the University of Prince Edward Island requires the demonstration of a reasonable mastery of a concentrated field of study. The latter is attested by the achieving of satisfactory standings in the minimum number of graduate courses required by the respective Faculty, the completion of a research project, and the writing of a thesis based upon the research.

There will be considerable interaction and co-operation among the departments/faculties to provide courses and research facilities to meet the needs of individual students and their research projects.

In addition to the “General Regulations for Graduate Programs,” described above, the following regulations apply specifically to the Master’s degree:

Residency Requirements

Normally, at least two semesters of full-time study in residence at the University must be devoted to the Master’s program if the student is admitted as a regular student. For a regular student admitted to a part-time study program, the residency period is based on the equivalence of three part-time semesters to one full-time semester. A student, admitted as a provisional student requiring two semesters in that category, must spend at least one additional semester as a regular full-time student to meet the residency requirement. Upon completion of the residency requirement the student is then eligible to become a candidate for the MSc degree.

Normally, the thesis must be formally submitted or the program be otherwise complete within 48 months of the completion of the residency requirement. Departure from these normal requirements requires approval from the Graduate Studies Committee.

B) COURSES

Prescribed Studies

The proportion of weight attached to the research and thesis may vary, even within a department/faculty. Accordingly, the number of courses and/or general examinations may correspondingly vary. In no case, however, will the minimum requirements be less than those outlined in the following two paragraphs. For graduate credit, the courses selected must be acceptable to the department/faculty and the Graduate Studies Committee. The candidate must maintain a cumulative average grade of at least a B standing (see Grades in General Regulations section) in the substantive courses outlined below in order to maintain registration in the program.

A department/faculty may require examinations (oral and/or written), from time to time, to evaluate the student’s progress in his/her overall program.

Additional Courses

In addition to these prescribed studies, the candidate may undertake to achieve satisfactory standings in courses supportive of the special discipline. These courses may be at either the undergraduate or the graduate level. The standings obtained in them will not affect the average grade of the prescribed studies.

C) THE THESIS

Research

Normally, the equivalent of at least two full-time semesters must be devoted to research in fulfilment of the thesis requirement. Summers during which research work is actively conducted may be counted as research semester equivalents, even though courses would not normally be offered at that time. In order to avoid undue prolongation of the time required to complete the degree, the research topic should be identified early and approved by the Supervisory Committee. Research involving the use of animals must follow the Guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Thesis

Each candidate for the degree of Master of Science is required to submit a thesis based upon the research conducted under supervision as described above. The thesis must demonstrate the candidate’s capacity for original and independent work, and should include a critical evaluation of work which has previously been done in the field of his or her research. The thesis should emphasize any new conclusions which may be drawn from the candidate’s own research.

General specifications as to paper, format, order, and binding are available from the Office of the Program Administrator.

Procedures

The thesis may be handed in at any time of the year, but candidates must bear in mind the desirability of having the final examination as much in advance of the deadline date for thesis submission as possible. Candidates are advised to inform themselves of the deadlines schedule, a copy of which may be obtained in the Office of the Program Administrator. It is desirable that each candidate initiate discussion about examination dates with the Supervisor early in the final semester.

The candidate should keep in close touch with the Supervisor and the Supervisory Committee, throughout the preparation of the thesis. The final draft of the thesis, after it has been reviewed by all members of the Supervisory Committee, is sent when ready for examination, to the members of the Master’s Examination Committee (see below).

Following the Master’s Examination, the candidate, if successful, arranges for the preparation of the thesis in final form, and for its submission to the Program Administrator (see below). The thesis in final form must include any minor corrections or revisions indicated during the Examination. Approval of the thesis takes the form of a Certificate of Approval, signed by the Examination Committee.

The Master’s Examination

The final oral examination, devoted chiefly to the defence of the thesis, is an examination identified as the Master’s Examination and carried out by the Master’s Examination Committee.

The Department Chair selects the Examination Committee at the request of the Supervisor and is responsible for notifying the Program Administrator of its composition. The Examination is normally open to the public; however, members of the audience may question the candidate only upon invitation of the Chair of the Committee.

The Examination is passed and the thesis approved if there is no more than one negative vote, an abstention being regarded as a negative vote. The report, from the Department Chair to the Program Administrator, records the result as “unsatisfactory” or “satisfactory.” If the result is “unsatisfactory,” the candidate may be given the opportunity by the Master’s Examination Committee of a second attempt. A second “unsatisfactory” result will terminate candidacy at this university.

FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE MSC PROGRAM

The graduate students will register in one of the four academic departments listed below and in one of the designated areas of specialization:

Department of Biomedical Sciences

Animal Behaviour

Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology

Cell and Molecular Biology

Neuroscience

Endocrinology

Department of Companion Animals

Anesthesiology

Cardiology

Diagnostic Imaging

Small Animal Medicine

Small Animal Surgery

Department of Health Management

Epidemiology/Health Management

Animal Science and Animal Nutrition

Clinical Sciences

Aquatic Animal Health

Animal Welfare

Biostatistics

Public Health

Department of Pathology and Microbiology

Morphologic Pathology

Wildlife Pathology

Clinical Pathology

Parasitology

Virology

Bacteriology

Public Health

Immunology

Aquatic Animal Health

Biosecurity

Substantive courses are graduate level courses assigned a minimum of two credit hours. Students are required to complete courses totalling a minimum of twelve credit hours. Within this course complement there must be at least four substantive courses and the appropriate departmental Seminar course (one credit). Only one of the substantive courses may be a Directed Studies Course. All students are expected to complete VHM 8010 (Veterinary Biostatistics) and VBS 8030 (Principles of Biomedical Research) unless comparable training has been completed prior to entry into the program.

When a student is required to register in a seminar or colloquium course in more than one semester, the record will show a grade or a designation of “In Progress” for semesters prior to completion of the course and “Pass” or “Fail” for the final semester. With the consent of the Supervisory Committee, and of the instructor and the Department Chair concerned, a student may register for, and audit, all or part of a course. It is understood that the student will attend lectures as prescribed, but will not write any examination or receive any grade. Such a course may be recorded as an additional course, identified by AUD.

The Master’s Examination Committee normally consists of five members as follows:

i. two graduate faculty of the Department, who are not members of the Supervisory Committee, one of whom is appointed by the Department Chair to act as chair of the Master’s Examination and to make the arrangements therefore;

ii. the Supervisor of the candidate’s research;

iii. one additional member of the Supervisory Committee;

iv. one member of the graduate faculty from a department other than that in which the student is registered.

FACULTY OF SCIENCE MSC PROGRAM

The graduate students will register in one of the designated areas of specialization listed below:

  • Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences (MMS)
  • Environmental Sciences (ESC)
  • Human Biology (HB)
  • Sustainable Design Engineering (SDE)

Students are required to take a minimum of three graduate level courses, all of which are to be regarded as substantive. A Seminar course (MMS 8900 or ESC 8900 or HB 8900 or SDE 8900) is required. Students may take only one Directed Studies course (MMS 8810 or ESC 8810 or HB 8810 or SDE 8810 or alternatively, VBS 8810 or 8820, VPM 8810 or 8820, VCA 8810 or 8820, VHM 8810 or 8820) for credit. Students lacking an Honours degree or background in one or more area may, at the discretion of the Supervisory Committee, be required to take the appropriate undergraduate level course(s), in addition to the required courses. All graduate students must receive non-credit WHMIS (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System) training in their first year.

When a student is required to register in a seminar or colloquium course in more than one semester, the record will show a grade or a designation of “In Progress” for semesters prior to completion of the course and “Pass” or “Fail” (or a numerical grade in the case of MMS 8900) for the final semester. Enrolment in the Seminar course implies the student will participate as a presenter in at least one Graduate Studies Day. With the consent of the Supervisory Committee, and of the instructor and the Department Chair concerned, a student may register for, and audit, all or part of a course. It is understood that the student will attend lectures as prescribed, but will not write any examination or receive any grade. Such a course may be recorded as an additional course, identified by AUD.

The Master’s Examination Committee normally consists of five members as follows:

i. three members of the Supervisory Committee, including the Supervisor of the candidate’s research;

ii. one member of the area of specialization but from a department other than that of the student’s supervisor. This external examiner may be from the University of Prince Edward Island, or from another University or Research Institute, as is deemed appropriate;

iii. the Coordinator of Graduate Studies (or designate), who will Chair the Master’s Examination Committee.

Master of Veterinary Medicine (MVSC)

A) STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAM

The MVSc degree of the University of Prince Edward Island is a two-year, non-thesis (professional) Master’s-track program to enhance scholarship and competitiveness of veterinarians in one of the broad disciplines of pathology, microbiology, or clinical sciences. The program is designed to provide advanced training in the disciplines, and to develop teaching and communication skills. In addition, a student successfully completing the program may spend an extra year of residency in his/her selected discipline so as to be eligible for certification by specialty groups that require three years of residency training. Success in the program is attested by the achieving of satisfactory standings in the minimum number of graduate courses required, the completion of a research project, and the writing of a project report suitable for publication in a refereed journal.

The graduate students will register in one of the academic departments listed below and in one of the designated areas of specialization:

Department of Companion Animals

Small Animal Medicine

Small Animal Surgery

Cardiology

Diagnostic Imaging

Department of Health Management

Large Animal Medicine

Large Animal Surgery

Theriogenology

Population Medicine

Aquatic Food Animal Medicine

Equine Clinical Sciences

Food Animal Clinical Sciences

Department of Pathology and Microbiology

Bacteriology

Clinical Pathology

Immunology

Morphologic Pathology

Parasitology

Virology

Wildlife Pathology

Public Health

Aquatic Animal Health

Biosecurity

In addition to the “General Regulations for Graduate Programs,” described above, the following regulations apply specifically to the MVSc degree:

Residency Requirements

Normally, at least four semesters of full-time study in residence at the University must be devoted to the non-thesis Master’s program if the student is admitted as a regular student. For a regular student admitted to a part-time study program, the residency period is based on the equivalence of three part-time semesters to one full- time semester. A student admitted as a provisional student requiring two semesters in that category must spend at least two additional semesters as a regular full-time student to meet the residency requirement. Upon completion of the residency requirement, the student is then eligible to become a candidate for the MVSc degree.

Normally, the project report must be formally submitted, or the program must be otherwise complete, within 48 months of the completion of the residency requirement. Departure from these normal requirements requires approval from the Graduate Studies Committee.

B) COURSES

Prescribed Studies

The minimum number of courses and/or general examinations is outlined below. For graduate credit, the courses selected must be acceptable to the Department and the Graduate Studies Committee. The candidate must maintain an average grade of at least a “B” standing (see Grades in General Regulations section) in the substantive courses outlined below in order to maintain registration in the program. Substantive courses are graduate level courses assigned a minimum of two credit hours.

Students are required to complete courses totalling a minimum of 32 credit hours. Within this course complement there must be at least eight substantive courses and the appropriate departmental Seminar course (one credit). Normally, in addition to the project, at least three substantive courses should be in the area of the student’s specialization. The Department may require examinations (oral and/or written) from time to time, to evaluate the student’s progress in his/her overall program.

Additional Courses

In addition to these prescribed studies, the candidate may undertake to achieve satisfactory standings in courses supportive of the special discipline. These courses may be at either the undergraduate or the graduate level. The standings obtained in them will not affect the average grade of the prescribed studies.

When a student is required to register in a seminar or colloquium course in more than one semester, the record will show a grade or a designation of “In Progress” for semesters prior to completion of the course, and “Pass” or “Fail” for the final semester. With the consent of the Supervisory Committee, and of the instructor and the Department Chair concerned, a student may register for, and audit, all or part of a course. It is understood that the student will attend lectures as prescribed, but will not write any examination or receive any grade. Such a course may be recorded as an additional course, identified by “AUD”.

C) THE PROJECT REPORT

Research

Normally, the equivalent of at least six credit hours must be devoted to a small research project in fulfilment of the degree requirement. The project may be based on either a laboratory or clinical investigation, or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. Summers during which research work is actively conducted may be counted as research semester equivalents, even though other courses may not be offered at that time. In order to avoid undue prolongation of the time required to complete the degree, the research topic should be identified early and approved by the Supervisory Committee. Research involving the use of animals must follow the Guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care.

Project Report

Each candidate for the degree of Master of Veterinary Science is required to submit a project report (in place of a thesis) based upon the research conducted under supervision as described above. The report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. The report should be prepared as a manuscript, in a form that meets the guidelines for submission of a peer-reviewed scientific journal.

Procedures

The project report may be handed in at any time of the year, but candidates must bear in mind the desirability of having the final examination as much in advance of the deadline date for report submission as possible. Candidates are advised to inform themselves of the deadlines schedule, a copy of which may be obtained in the Office of the Program Administrator. It is desirable that each candidate initiate discussion about examination dates with the Supervisor early in the final semester.

The candidate should keep in close touch with the Supervisor and the Supervisory Committee, throughout the preparation of the project report. The final draft of the report, after it has been reviewed by all members of the Supervisory Committee, and when ready for examination is sent to the members of the MVSc Examination Committee (see below).

Following the Examination, the candidate, if successful, arranges for the preparation of the project report in final form, and for its submission to the Program Administrator (see below). The project report in final form, prepared as a manuscript meeting the guidelines for submission of a peer-reviewed scientific journal, must include any minor corrections or revisions indicated during the Examination. Approval of the report and the manuscript takes the form of a Certificate of Approval, signed by the Examination Committee.

The Master of Veterinary Science Examination

The final oral examination is based on an overall assessment of the candidate’s knowledge and competence in his/her field of study, including the project report. It is a departmental examination identified as the MVSc Examination and carried out by the MVSc Examination Committee normally consisting of four members as follows:

i. one graduate faculty of the Department, who is not a member of the Supervisory Committee, and who is appointed by the Department Chair to act as chair of the MVSc Examination and to make the arrangements therefore;

ii. the Supervisor of the candidate’s program;

iii. one additional member of the Supervisory Committee; and

iv. one member of the graduate faculty from a department other than that in which the student is registered.

The Department Chair selects the Examination Committee at the request of the Supervisor and is responsible for notifying the Program Administrator of its composition. The Examination is normally open to the public; however, members of the audience may question the candidate only upon invitation of the Chair of the Committee.

The Examination is passed and the project report approved if there is no more than one negative vote, an abstention being regarded as a negative vote. The report, from the Department Chair to the Program Administrator, records the result as “unsatisfactory,” or “satisfactory,”. If the result is “unsatisfactory,” the candidate may be given the opportunity by the MVSc Examination Committee of a second attempt. A second “unsatisfactory” result will terminate candidacy at this university.

Doctor of Philosophy Program (PhD), Veterinary Medicine

A) STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAM

The purpose of the PhD degree program is to educate individuals to become independent, reliable, and competent research scientists. The PhD degree of the University of Prince Edward Island requires the demonstration of a reasonable mastery of a concentrated field of study. The latter is attested to by the achieving of satisfactory standings in each of a minimum of five graduate courses, the completion of a research project, and the writing of a thesis based upon the research.

The graduate students will register in one of the academic departments of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and in one of the areas of specialization listed:

Department of Biomedical Sciences

Animal Behaviour

Physiology, Pharmacology and Toxicology

Cell Biology

Neuroscience

Endocrinology

Department of Health Management

Animal Science and Animal Nutrition

Epidemiology/Health Management

Clinical Sciences

Aquatic Animal Health

Biostatistics

Public Health

Animal Welfare

Department of Pathology and Microbiology

Bacteriology

Clinical Pathology

Immunology

Morphologic Pathology

Parasitology

Virology

Wildlife Pathology

Public Health

Aquatic Animal Health

Biosecurity

Depending on the individual thesis topic, projects could involve one or more of several species of animals. There will be considerable interaction and co-operation among the departments, with other universities in the region, and with government research laboratories to provide courses and research facilities to meet the needs of individual students and their research projects.

In addition to the “General Regulations for Graduate Programs” described earlier, the following regulations apply specifically to the Doctor of Philosophy degree:

Admission Requirements

The normal basis for admission to PhD studies as a regular or a provisional student is a recognized thesis-based MSc degree obtained with an average of at least second class (B level 70% to 79.9%) academic standing.

Transfer from MSc to PhD

An applicant enrolled in an MSc program who achieves a superior record (normally at least first class [80% or higher] academic standing in graduate course work) and shows a particular aptitude for research may, with recommendation of the Supervisory Committee and Department, apply to the Graduate Studies and Research Committee for transfer from the MSc to a PhD program without the requirement for completion of the MSc degree. Transfers are normally made within the same department. However, inter-departmental transfers will be considered by the Graduate Studies and Research Committee on a case-by-case basis, on the recommendation of both Departments. The application for transfer must be made no sooner than the end of the second semester and normally no later than the end of the sixth semester, and is effective in the semester following approval. All regulations relating to the PhD program apply from the effective date. However, admission to the doctoral program will be considered provisional until such time as the candidate passes the PhD Comprehensive Examination, as governed by departmental regulations. If the Comprehensive Examination is passed, the student will be transferred from provisional to regular PhD student status. Two failed attempts of the Comprehensive Examination will result in the provisional PhD student status being revoked and immediate reversion to MSc student status. All regulations relating the MSc degree apply from the date of reversion. There will be no refund of program fees.

Residency Requirements

Normally, at least six semesters of full-time study in-residency at the University must be devoted to the doctoral program following completion of a recognized Master’s degree. In cases in which a student transfers from a Master’s to a PhD program, eight semesters of full-time study would be the minimum residency requirement after completion of the Bachelor’s degree. Normally, the thesis must be formally submitted within 48 months of the completion of the residency requirement. Departure from these normal requirements requires approval from the Graduate Studies and Research Committee.

B) SUPERVISION

The student’s program is established and progress kept under review by the appropriate department. At the discretion of the academic unit, the day-to-day responsibility for overseeing the student’s program will rest with the Supervisor or jointly with the Supervisory Committee of five graduate faculty, one of whom must be from a department other than that in which the student is registered.

The Chair of the Supervisory Committee is normally the Department Chair. The graduate student’s Supervisor shall not be the Chair of the Supervisory Committee. The Supervisor will normally have the degree for which the student is registered and be from the Department in which the student is enrolled.

C) COURSES

The PhD degree is primarily a research degree; for that reason course work commonly comprises a smaller proportion of the total than is the case at the level of the Master’s degree.

Prescribed Studies

In the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, substantive courses are graduate level courses assigned a minimum of two credit hours. In the PhD program students are required to complete courses totalling a minimum of 12 credit hours. Within this course complement there must be at least four substantive courses and the appropriate departmental Seminar course (one credit). Only one of the substantive courses may be a Directed Studies course.

All students are expected to complete VHM 8010 (Veterinary Biostatistics) and VBS 8030 (Principles of Biomedical Research) unless comparable training has been completed prior to entry into the program. In some cases, on the recommendation of the Supervisory Committee and with the approval of the Graduate Studies and Research Committee, exemptions may be granted for some of the course requirement in recognition of previous academic work. For graduate credit, the courses selected must be acceptable to the department and the Graduate Studies and Research Committee. These “substantive” courses and/ or general examinations comprise the candidate’s prescribed studies, in which the student must obtain an overall average grade of at least second-class standing (see Grades in General Regulations section).

A department may require examinations (oral and/or written), from time to time, to evaluate the student’s progress in his/her overall program.

Additional Courses

In addition to these prescribed studies, the candidate may undertake to achieve satisfactory standings in courses supportive of the special discipline. These courses may be at either the undergraduate or the graduate level. The standings obtained in them will not affect the average grade of the prescribed studies. When a student is required to register in a seminar or colloquium course in more than one semester, the record will show a grade or a designation of “In Progress” for semesters prior to completion of the course and “Pass” or “Fail” for the final semester. With the consent of the Supervisory Committee, and of the instructor and the Department Chair concerned, a student may register for, and audit, all or part of a course. It is understood that the student will attend lectures as prescribed, but will not write any examination or receive any grade. Such a course may be recorded as an additional course, identified by AUD.

D) THE THESIS

Research

In the total program of a doctoral student it is expected that the major part of the time be devoted to research in fulfilment of the thesis requirement. The research proposal should be formulated at as early a date as possible and be presented to the Supervisory Committee for approval. Research involving the use of animals must follow the Guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care. When it is necessary for the research, or some of it, to be conducted off-campus, the arrangements are subject to the prior approval of the Chair of the Department in which the student is registered.

Comprehensive Examination

At as early a date as may be feasible in each case, and in all cases no later than the final semester of the residency requirement (i.e., the 6th semester after the Master’s degree or the 8th semester after the honours baccalaureate), the student is required to take an examination to assess his or her knowledge in that branch of learning embracing the subject. The examination will ordinarily be in two parts, one written and one oral.

The Comprehensive Examination is an examination by the academic unit in which the student is enrolled (as distinct from an examination by the Supervisory Committee).

Upon completing the Comprehensive Examination satisfactorily, the student is deemed to have met the Department standards, and then becomes a candidate for the PhD degree. The Examining Committee, appointed by the Chair of the academic unit concerned, consists of some or all of the members of the Supervisory Committee, together with two additional members of the Graduate Faculty, at least one of whom must be a member of the unit. The Chair of the academic unit concerned serves as Chair of the Examining Committee, and is responsible for making all arrangements. As a Comprehensive Examination, consideration is to be given to:

1) the student’s knowledge of the subject matter and ability to integrate the material derived from his or her studies; and,

2) to the student’s ability and promise in research. The Examining Committee, therefore, will receive from the Supervisory Committee a written evaluation of the quality of the student’s performance to date in research and of the student’s potential as a researcher. The Examining Committee will determine the relative importance to be given to these two major components of the Comprehensive Examination.

The results of the Comprehensive Examination will be reported to the Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research through the Chair of the academic unit. The examination may be repeated once within a program, and if the student fails a second time, further registration in the PhD program will be denied.

Thesis

Each candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy shall submit a thesis, written by the candidate, on the research carried out by the candidate on the approved topic. The thesis is expected to be a significant contribution to knowledge in its field, and the candidate must indicate in what ways it is a contribution. The thesis must demonstrate mature scholarship and critical judgement on the part of the candidate, and it must indicate an ability to express oneself in a satisfactory literary style. Approval of the thesis is taken to imply that it is judged to be sufficiently meritorious to warrant publication in reputable scholarly media in the field.

Examination and Publication

For each doctoral thesis, an External Examiner from outside the University is appointed by the Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research in consultation with the Supervisor and the Department Chair. Prior to the exam, the External Examiner will submit a written appraisal of the thesis to the Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research. This brief report will summarize their evaluation of the thesis and normally include a discussion of the scientific significance of the thesis with comments regarding its theoretical framework, methodology, findings, and interpretations. The report will consider its academic standard and quality, reflecting that the candidate meets the minimum requirements to qualify as a researcher, considering the candidate’s formulation of research questions, logical and original approaches to testing stated hypotheses, and understanding of current methods and their limitations.

The External Examiner is expected to attend the Final Oral Examination. However, when an External Examiner is unable to attend the Final Oral Examination within a reasonable time frame, the Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research, in consultation with the Chair of the Examination Committee and the Chair of the Department, may permit examination via videoconference. Honoraria and expenses are paid as per University policy in relation to the duties involved.

Procedures

The thesis may be submitted at any time of the year, but candidates are advised to allow ample time for revision and examination. It is understood that, as the thesis is being written, the candidate is in regular communication with the Supervisory Committee. In due time, a draft emerges which is deemed to be ready for examination. The candidate then formally requests examination, endorsed by the Supervisory Committee (maximum of one dissenting committee member) and the Departmental Chair, and a copy of this final draft is sent to the External Examiner as “fair copy” of the thesis. Normally within one week of receiving the thesis, the External Examiner will communicate to the Associate Dean GSR their opinion of the overall acceptability of the thesis going forward to examination. If the thesis is approved, at this stage, arrangements for the Final Oral Examination will be finalized by the Graduate Studies and Research Office. It is understood that as a result of the Final Oral Examination, the entire examination committee will be involved in decisions about whether the candidate satisfies the criteria for the degree which may include corrections to produce a revised final draft of the thesis.

The Final Oral Examination

The Final Oral Examination is devoted chiefly to the defence of the doctoral thesis. It is a Faculty (as distinct from a departmental) examination, for which the arrangements are the responsibility of the Office of the Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research. The Final Oral Examination is conducted by a Committee consisting of five members, as follows:

  • a member of the graduate faculty who is not a member of the Supervisory Committee appointed to act as Chair by the Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research in consultation with the Department Chair;
  • the External Examiner;
  • a member of the graduate faculty who is not a member of the Supervisory Committee, selected by the Departmental graduate faculty;
  • two members of the student’s Supervisory Committee, selected by the Supervisory Committee. Normally, one member shall be from a Department other than that in which the student is registered.

Normally, the Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research or his/her designate will attend the Examination. The Examination is normally open to the public but members of the audience may question the candidate only upon invitation of the Chair of the Committee. Normally the Examination is preceded by a public presentation of the research results.

The members of the Examination Committee, including the External Examiner, report individually on both the defence and the thesis, the candidate being deemed to have passed if not more than one of the five Examiners votes negatively. An abstention is regarded as a negative vote. Concurrently, the members sign the Certificate of Approval, to be submitted with the approved thesis in its final form to the Associate Dean of Graduate Studies and Research. The report to the Associate Dean will record the decision as “unsatisfactory,” or “satisfactory.” If “unsatisfactory,” the candidate may be given the opportunity of a second attempt. A second “unsatisfactory” will terminate candidacy at this University.

Graduate Courses

Faculty of Science

Master of Science—Environmental Sciences (ESC)
Master of Science—Human Biology (HB)
Master of Science—Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences (MMS)

MASTER OF SCIENCE—ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (ESC) COURSES

ESC 8000 THESIS

ESC 8120 ADVANCED TOPICS IN ECOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
This course covers advances in practical and theoretical aspects of aquatic and terrestrial ecology, and represents one of the three general axes of research expertise within the Department. A combination of formal lectures, directed readings, and group discussion of journal articles is used. Students are expected to prepare written reports or present seminars.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

ESC 8130 ADVANCED TOPICS IN PLANT SCIENCE
This course covers current advances in botany, including plant development and morphology, anatomy and physiology, pollination biology, and biotechnology. A combination of formal lectures, directed readings, and group discussion of journal articles is used. Students are expected to prepare written reports or present seminars.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science and permission of the instructor
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

ESC 8620 ADVANCED FRESHWATER ECOLOGY
This course provides advanced study in the ecology of freshwater habitats, particularly those found on Prince Edward Island. The first part of the course concentrates on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of fresh waters, classification of freshwater habitats, and applied limnology. A laboratory/field component includes an introduction to water analysis techniques and field equipment, field water analysis, the collection and analysis of biological samples, and the physical properties of water. The second part is a field/lab project on a limnological topic tailored to the student’s individual program, and consists of an experimental or observational study coupled with a comprehensive literature review, project write-up, and oral presentation.
NOTE: Credit is not given for both Biology 4620 (Limnology) and Biology 8620 and ESC 8620. Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

ESC 8650 ADVANCES IN MARINE ECOLOGY
This course provides an update on relevant areas of ongoing marine research. The first part of the course concentrates on marine ecology topics including benthic-pelagic coupling, dispersal and adult-larval interactions, animal-sediment relationships, biodiversity ecosystem services, encrusting communities and their interactions, and aquatic invasive species. The second part includes participation in regular discussion sessions based on analysis of advanced literature relevant to the discipline and to the student’s particular research. Assignments include an essay relevant (but not restricted) to a student’s field of research, and a seminar on a topic relating general ecological hypotheses to the topic addressed in the essay.
NOTE: Credit will not be given for both Biology 4650 (Marine Community Ecology) and ESC 8650.
PREREQUISITE: Entry into a graduate program at UPEI and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab/field trip per week, plus discussion group.)
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

ESC 8810 DIRECTED STUDIES IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES
Under the supervision of a faculty member, a graduate student independently pursues an area of interest in depth. The course includes an extensive literature review of the specific discipline, directed research on the topic, or collection and analysis of data. The student may be required to present a written report and/or present a seminar in the area. Topics must not be a part of the student’s thesis research although they may be in a complementary area. Course outlines must be approved by the supervisory committee, the department Chair, and the Dean of Science.
PREREQUISITE: Admission in the graduate program in Biology and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8900 SEMINAR
In this course students attend seminars on current topics in their thesis areas and deliver seminars. Techniques in preparing scientific communications (oral presentations and poster displays) are also covered.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

MASTER OF SCIENCE—HUMAN BIOLOGY (HB) COURSES

HB 8000 THESIS

HB 8110 ADVANCED TOPICS IN CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
This course enhances student knowledge of cell and molecular biology from a research perspective. Current advances in cell and molecular biology, including biotechnology and cytogenetics, are emphasized. Topics vary yearly according to the needs of the participating students. A combination of formal lectures, directed readings, and group discussion of journal articles is used. Students are expected to prepare written reports or present seminars.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

HB 8250 ADVANCED TECHNIQUES IN SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY
This course covers the principles of scanning electron microscopy, including techniques used for the preparation of biological or other materials for microscopy and the use of specialized software to analyze surface features of samples. Students learn to operate the instrument over the full spectrum of use, generating their own images and interpreting patterns. A microscopical investigation of material relevant to the student’s discipline forms the basis of a course project.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program or Permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

HB 8350 PRINCIPLES OF POSITIVE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT THROUGH SPORT
This course will explore the different aspects related to positive youth development through sport and investigate the most current research available to understand how positive experiences in sport can be achieved. Topics that will be addressed in the course include, but are not limited to, the multiple definitions of positive development in sport (life skills, developmental assets, 5 Cs, initiative), sport as a vehicle for positive development, and characteristics associated with a positive sport environment.The graduate component of the course will require students to lead a number of seminars throughout the semester, write a reflective journal, and prepare a grant application related to a topic of interest within the area of positive youth development.
Cross-listed with Kinesiology 4350.
PREREQUISITE: Graduate students need permission of the instructor.
Three semester hours of credit

HB 8430 ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGY OF EXERCISE ADAPTION AND PERFORMANCE
This course focuses on factors governing chronic exercise adaptations, acute exercise performance and health. Course content explores concepts such as skeletal muscle repair, genetics of sport performance and the effects of various training modalities (HIIT, resistance etc.). Students will combine theoretical background with applied learning experiences in advanced fitness appraisal methods and techniques.
Cross-listed with Kinesiology 4430.
Graduate students need prior admission to a graduate program at UPEI and permission of the instructor.
Three semester hours of credit
NOTE: Credit not given for both KINE 4430 and HB 8430; Responsibility for this course rests within the Department of Applied Human Sciences.

HB 8810 DIRECTED STUDIES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH
Under the supervision of a faculty member, a graduate student independently pursues an area of interest in depth. The course includes an extensive literature review of the specific discipline, directed research on the topic, or collection and analysis of data. The student may be required to present a written report and/or present a seminar in the area. Topics must not be a part of the student’s thesis research although they may be in a complementary area. Course outlines must be approved by the supervisory committee, the department Chair, and the Dean of Science.
PREREQUISITE: Admission in the graduate program in Biology and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

HB 8830 EPIDEMIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS IN PRIMARY HEALTHCARE RESEARCH
This course introduces essential principles of epidemiological applications that are relevant to primary healthcare research. Students will be introduced to the principles of patient oriented research, primary healthcare, and the background of epidemiological applications, as well as the specific applications and computations of sensitivity and specificity, risk estimation, rates and proportions, hypothesis generating and hypothesis evaluation, as well as arithmetic and mathematical modeling. A combination of formal lectures, directed readings, group discussions and interpretation of outcomes from specific analyses using customized “webulators” will be used. Students are expected to prepare written reports and/or present seminars.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

HB 8850 BIOINFORMATICS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
This course is an introduction to bioinformatics and a practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins. It will familiarize students with the tools and principles of contemporary bioinformatics. By the end of the course, students will have a working knowledge at the graduate level of a variety of publicly available databases and computational tools important in bioinformatics, and a grasp of the underlying principles that are adequate for them to evaluate and utilize novel techniques as they arise in the future. In addition to participating in all the lectures and activities of the undergraduate course CS 3220/BIO 3220, graduate students are expected to accomplish a graduate project and attend extra guest lectures specially prepared for graduate students (when the graduate enrolment is 3 or more). The graduate project would be related to the student’s research, so the thesis supervisor will be invited to join in the process of choosing and evaluating the graduate project. The graduate project will be worth 30% of the final grade.
Cross-listed with CS 3220, BIO 3220, and VPM 8850.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: No student can be awarded more than one course credit among HB 8850, VPM 8850, CS 3220, and BIO 3220.

HB 8900 SEMINAR
In this course students attend seminars on current topics in their thesis areas and deliver seminars. Techniques in preparing scientific communications (oral presentations and poster displays) are also covered.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.

MASTER OF SCIENCE—MOLECULAR AND MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCES (MMS) COURSES

MMS 8000 THESIS

MMS 8050 ADVANCED STUDIES IN  NMR SPECTROSCOPY
This course covers the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry used in the determination of structures in Organic and Inorganic Chemistry. Major topics include the theory and use of NMR spectroscopy, in particular the use of 2D experiments and multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. Particular emphasis is placed on developing the students’ ability to interpret spectra and elucidate the structure of a molecule based on this evidence beyond the undergraduate level, as well as the role NMR has played as a structural tool in the pharmaceutical industry and academia. Students will have a practical/hands-on component in this course.
Cross-listed with CHEM 4050. Credit cannot be received for both MMS 8050 and CHEM 4050.
Restriction: Student must be admitted into a graduate program in Science.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8090 BIOMATERIALS
This course covers the fundamentals of the synthesis, properties, and biocompatibility of metallic, ceramic, polymeric, and biological materials that come in contact with tissue and biological fluids. Emphasis is placed on using biomaterials for both hard and soft tissue replacement, organ replacement, coatings and adhesives, dental implants, and drug delivery systems. New trends in biomaterials and the recent merging of cell biology and biochemistry with materials is examined.
Cross-listed with CHEM 4090. Credit cannot be received for both MMS 8090 and CHEM 4090.
Restriction: Student must be admitted into a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8690 MATERIALS CHEMISTRY
This course discusses current topics in materials chemistry. Topics include the synthesis and characterization of intercalation compounds, conductive polymers and their applications, semiconductors and their applications, defects in inorganic solids, and transport measurements. Students will perform a thorough literature search on a topic in materials science; write a review and a research proposal on the selected topic, followed by in-class presentations.
Cross-listed with CHEM 4690. Credit cannot be received for both MMS 8690 and CHEM 4690.
PREREQUISITE:  Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8810 DIRECTED STUDIES IN MOLECULAR AND MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCES
This course is a thorough study of a selected topic in Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences. Entry to the course, and the course outline, are subject to the approval of the Supervisory Committee, and the Dean of Science. The course may include directed reading, directed research, and discussion with the instructor. The student may be required to prepare a written report and/or present a seminar in the area. Topics must not be directly related to the student’s research project, although they may be in the same discipline.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8820 ADVANCED TOPICS IN MOLECULAR AND MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCES
This course covers current advances and advanced topics in a discipline of Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences and is a thorough study of specific topics. It is offered to graduate students at the discretion of the Department, and covers areas of specialization not covered in other graduate courses. The course discusses recent advances in an area of interest to the students but which are not part of the students’ thesis research directly.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Chemistry.

MMS 8830 ADVANCED TOPICS IN COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY
This course exercises the application of computational chemistry to structural and reactivity questions in organic and inorganic chemistry. Computational methods discussed include molecular mechanics, ab initio and semi-empirical calculations, and density functional theory. The objective is to gain an understanding of the application of these methods to chemical problems. The current literature is explored to illustrate the use of computational chemistry in research.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc Program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Chemistry.

MMS 8840 ADVANCED SPECTROSCOPIC STRUCTURE ELUCIDATION
This course covers various forms of spectrometry used in the determination of structures in Organic and Inorganic Chemistry. Major topics include the theory and use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, in particular the use of 2D experiments; mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy. Particular emphasis is placed on developing the students’ ability to interpret spectra and elucidate the structure of a molecule based on this evidence. Spectroscopic techniques for the study of transient species are also discussed, including: laser flash photolysis (LFP); laser-induced fluorescence (LIF); and stopped-flow and relaxation methods for fast reaction studies.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Chemistry.

MMS 8900 SEMINAR IN MOLECULAR AND MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCES
In this course students attend regular departmental seminars. Students are also required to present a seminar on a topic within their discipline, but unrelated to their research project. Students must register for this course each semester, and receive a grade of “In Progress” until completion of their MSc programs.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc Program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Chemistry.

Faculty of Engineering

MASTER OF SCIENCE—SUSTAINABLE DESIGN ENGINEERING (SDE)

SDE 8000 THESIS
Registration of thesis
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the School of Sustainable Design Engineering
NOTE: No credit, but registration required.

SDE 8020 QUALITY CONTROL AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT
This course is an introduction to the most widely accepted project management practices in the workforce today. The student will learn the industrially accepted techniques associated with the management of time, cost, risk, and scope in order to achieve total project stakeholder satisfaction. The goal in this course is to prepare students with the most efficient and effective project management practices by applying these techniques to their graduate research work, and in so doing greatly increase their likelihood of managing successful projects during their careers.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8040 DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS
This course focuses on the design, implementation, and analysis of engineering, scientific, and computer-based experiments. The course will examine the proper and scientific approach to experimentation, modeling, simulation, and analysis of data. Various designs are discussed and their respective advantages and disadvantages are noted. Factorial designs and sensitivity analysis will be studied in detail because of its relevance to various industries. Use of software for designing and analyzing experiments will also be used. For experiments that involved mainly physical quantities and natural phenomena, techniques of dimensional analysis will also be introduced.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8060 MODELING, CONTROL, AND DESIGN OF ENERGY SYSTEMS
This course focuses on the understanding of the physical processes underlying the energy conversion process from wind and solar energy. Students will have an advanced knowledge of aerodynamics and structural dynamics, and they will understand the main strategies used for controlling these machines over their complete operating range. A specific goal of the course is to provide students with a multidisciplinary vision on the physics of energy systems, and an understanding of the methods used for their modeling and simulation. A particular emphasis will be placed on design, and on the effects of design choices on the cost of energy.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8080 INDUSTRIAL MACHINE VISION
This course focuses on computer vision with an emphasis on techniques for automated inspection, object recognition, mechanical metrology, and robotics. Image processing courses typically focus for image enhancement, restoration, filtering, smoothing, etc. These topics will be covered to a certain degree but the main focus will be on image segmentation, feature extraction, morphological operators, recognition and photogrammetry. Issues related to the efficient software implementation of these techniques for real-time applications will also be addressed.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8100 BIOFUEL AND BIOMASS TECHNOLOGY
This course focuses on advanced concepts in understanding biofuels and bioenergy systems, renewable feedstocks, their production, availability and attributes for biofuel/bioenergy production, types of biomass derived fuels and energy, thermochemical conversion of biomass to heat, power and fuel, biochemical conversion of biomass to fuel environmental aspects of biofuel production, economics and life-cycle analysis of biofuel, and value adding of biofuel residues. Students will analyze, as well as prepare, case studies on biofuel production.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8230 TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT & ENTREPRENEURSHIP
Cross-listed with Engineering 4320.
Graduate-level project will be defined.

SDE 8310 ADVANCED FABRICATION TECHNIQUES AND COMPUTER-INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING
This course concentrates on manufacturing knowledge with a focus on advanced fabrication techniques (AFT) and Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM). Students will expand their knowledge of  traditional processes including CAD/CAM, forming, welding, milling, etc. leading into innovative advanced fabrication techniques in additive and precision manufacturing, next generation electronics, robotics and smart automation (CIM), and sustainable and green manufacturing modeling and simulation in the manufacturing process developed through lectures and labs. Integration of CIM into supply chain design and management is emphasized based on synergistic application of mechatronics approach and philosophy.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4310; credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.

SDE 8320 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
This course will provide students with an overview of system modelling and control methodologies of single/multiple input/output systems, e.g., energy transport control, reactor control, heat exchanger control, power production, and mechatronic systems. Students will learn classical control methods e.g., feedforward, feedbacks, cascade, decoupling to modern control methods, LQR, predictive control, optimal and robust control. Students will be equipped with knowledge and skills for analyzing stability, controllability and observability of state-space representation modelled systems. Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4320.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week.

SDE 8330 INNOVATIONS IN BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING
This course introduces the study of medicine by focusing on innovations in medical devices, and future trends in materials, especially the increasing use of bio-resources, informatics, and mechatronics engineering applications in orthopedic, rehabilitation, simulation and education technologies. In its broader context, this course focuses on four areas of biotechnology, biomechanics, biomaterials and biosignals. Through a hands-on approach, the course focuses on innovative product development related to bio-signal, instrumentation, sensing, and image processing. Students will also gain an appreciation for the collaborative, interdisciplinary nature of engineering in medicine and its potential impact on society.
Graduate project will be defined.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4330.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8350 ADVANCED ROBOTIC DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
This course advances the fundamentals of robotics through exposure to in-depth knowledge and understanding of kinematics, dynamics, control and trajectory with applications to autonomous vehicles, automated manufacturing and processing and mobile robotics. Areas of interest include: position transformation and control, rigid body motion, kinematic control, compliance and force control. Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4350.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8370 FLUID POWER CONTROL
This course covers the analysis and design of basic hydraulic and pneumatic circuits and systems. Topics include a review of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics including flow through valves, fittings, and pipe; classification of hydrostatic pumps and motors; control valves; hydraulic accumulators; sizing of practical hydraulic circuits; thermal and energy considerations;  electrohydraulic control and modeling of hydraulic control systems. The latter part of the course focuses on pneumatic systems including pneumatic cylinders and motors, control valves, and compressor technology. The application of Programmable Logic Controls (PLCs) to industrial automation and the sequential control of pneumatic actuators is also addressed. Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4370.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8410 MACRO ENERGY SYSTEMS
This course covers methods for analyzing energy supply, conversion processes, and end-use at the system level. Aspects considered include the dynamics of energy supply and demand, efficiencies of energy conversion, characteristics of energy currencies, and energy needs across different sectors. Students will characterize methods of delivering energy services such as heat, light, industrial power and transportation. Energy analysis will be introduced and used to build a quantitative framework for integrating techno-economic analysis of energy system components, with emphasis on elements such as fossil fuels and nuclear power. Students will gain an enhanced, quantitative appreciation for the sustainability, emissions, cost and energy intensity aspects of energy services delivery.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4410.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8440 ADVANCED ENERGY STORAGE
This course considers advanced technical analysis of energy storage systems. A comprehensive overview of all industrially relevant energy storage systems is reviewed and emphasis is placed on promising energy storage technologies of the future. Chemical, thermal and kinetic storage technologies will be discussed in detail.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined
in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4440.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8450 FLUID LOADS ON ENERGY STRUCTURES
This course is an introduction to the loads applied on structures from wind, waves, and currents, and their heightened relevance to structures designed for energy conversion.
Phenomena to be discussed include lift and drag, boundary layers, vortex-induced vibrations, wakes, hydrostatic loading, and water waves. A selection of engineering methods will be introduced and brought to bear on these topics, such as potential flow theory, blade-element theory, Airy wave theory and Morison’s equation. Dimensional analysis will be introduced to characterize flow problems. Design implications will be discussed for a selection of relevant energy conversion structures such as aircraft wings, wind turbines, breakwaters, marine vessels, and offshore energy platforms. Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4450.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8470 MICRO GRIDS
This course focuses on the concept, operation and optimization of renewable-energy-based micro-grids. Concepts introduced and considered include renewable energy resources, integration technologies, grid-connected operation, islanded grid operation, energy storage integration and the optimal dimensioning and mixing of multiple energy sources where some are stochastic in nature and some are dispatchable. Existing and future energy storage technologies will be also be discussed.  This course is based on energy flow analysis and
makes extensive use of software simulation tools.  Students will develop a framework for performing techno-economic assessments of micro-grid architectures and designs. A strong background in electrical power systems is not necessarily required.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4470.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8510 GEOINFORMATICS IN BIORESOURCES
This course covers the theory and practice of geoinformatics and their applications to problems in bioresources using digital mapping and spatial analysis. Hands on laboratories will provide students with an experience to collect georeferenced data using differential global positioning system, followed by mapping and analysis in geographical information system.  Topics include datums, map projections and transformations, vector and raster data, geo-spatial analysis, geo-statistics and interpolation techniques. This course will also
cover the fundamentals of remote sensing, data collection with sensors, and spatial and temporal aspects of the bio-resources attributes. Graduate-level project will be required as
defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4510.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8530 FUNDAMENTALS OF AGRICULTURE MACHINERY
This course highlights the fundamentals of mechanized agriculture machinery from soil preparation, planting, and crop management to mechanical harvesting. The machines and their unit operation are analyzed with respect functions, work rates, material flow and power usage. The machine performance relating to work quality and environmental effects will also be evaluated. The labs will emphasize on safety, basic maintenance, adjustment, calibrations of equipment and performance testing. This course also covers the variable rate applicators for site-specific application of inputs, auto guidance system, data acquisition and management for intelligent decision making for machines, and precision agriculture technologies.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4530.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8550 CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES
Processes used in the chemical and biological industries, which emphasize underlying physical, chemical, and biological principles, will be introduced. By carrying out the mass and energy balances, students will conduct design and economic assessment of major chemical and biological engineering processes. Introduction to modelling of chemical processes will be covered in this course.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4550.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three hours of lecture and three hours of lab per week

SDE 8810 DIRECTED STUDIES IN SUSTAINABLE DESIGN ENGINEERING
Under the supervision of a faculty member, a graduate student independently pursues an area of interest in depth. The course includes an extensive literature review of the specific discipline, directed research on the topic, or collection and analysis of data. The student may be required to present a written report and/or present a seminar in the area. Topics must not be a part of the student’s thesis research although they may be in a complementary area. Course outlines must be approved by the supervisory committee, the department Chair, and the Dean of Science.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering and permission of supervisor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

SDE 8830 BIOMEDICAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
This course is an introduction to the basics of viewing, processing, and analyzing of biosignals, or signals originating from living beings.  Biosignals may be characterized as bioelectrical signals which can be composed of both electrical and non-electrical parts. Topics include both linear and nonlinear systems, signal conditioning or filtering, improving signal quality (signal-to-noise ratio) through averaging techniques, and signal representations in both the time and frequency domains.  Graduate-level project will be required as defined in consultation with the instructor.
Cross-listed with ENGN 4830.  Credit cannot be received for both courses.
Three lecture hours and three lab hours per week

SDE 8900 SEMINAR
In this course students attend seminars on current topics in their research area of Sustainable Design Engineering and are expected to be seminar presenters. Techniques in preparing scientific communication (oral presentations and poster displays) are also covered.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program in School of Sustainable Design Engineering
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

Biomedical Sciences
Companion Animals
Health Management
Pathology & Microbiology

BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES COURSES

VBS 8010 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY: PRINCIPLES, TECHNIQUES AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
This laboratory-oriented course introduces students to the principles and procedures required for the examination of structures with the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the interpretation/analysis of ultrastructural features of cells and tissues.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES: 3 hours
LABORATORIES: 4 hours

VBS 8030 PRINCIPLES OF BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH
This course provides graduate students in a biomedical field with general knowledge and principles of biomedical research. The lectures and tutorials cover topics like the scientific approach, experimental design, scientific writing, intellectual property, research ethics, preparing seminars, and grant writing. The laboratories focus on laboratory techniques that are useful in biomedical research.
LECTURES/TUTORIALS: 1-3 hours
LABORATORIES: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2 or 3

VBS 8170 CURRENT TOPICS IN MARINE BIOTECHNOLOGY
This course deals with advanced topics in Marine Biotechnology. Topics include: marine microbiology, natural products biosynthesis, isolation and characterization of bioactive natural products, heterologous expression of biosynthetic genes, drug development, chemical ecology. The course will meet for three contact hours per week and will involve in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature.
PREREQUISITE: Chemistry 2410/2420 OR 2430 and permission of instructor; a course in biochemistry would be an asset but is not required.
LECTURE: 3 hours
LAB/TUTORIAL: 0
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VBS 8230 FUNDAMENTALS OF DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course is designed to enhance student knowledge of the basic concepts in developmental biology. Early development of vertebrates is discussed with emphasis on experimental and molecular analysis of developmental mechanisms.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
TUTORIAL: 3 hours

VBS 8240 ADVANCED TOPICS IN DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course focuses on recent advances in developmental biology. Topics are selected from the recent literature according to student interests and may include embryonic induction, regulation of morphogenesis and differentiation, mechanisms of regional specification and pattern formation.
PREREQUISITES: VBS 8230 or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
TUTORIAL: 2 hours

VBS 8450 ADVANCED ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides in-depth analysis of environmental impacts of the major classes of contaminants including methodologies for environmental impacts assessment and monitoring. Effects of environmental contaminants are examined at the ecosystem, organismal, cellular, biochemical, and molecular levels. Additional emphasis is placed on understanding the fate of contaminants of concern in aquatic and terrestrial environments, environmental chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, and exposure and uptake pathways by organisms. The course consists of lectures, discussions of peer- reviewed literature, case studies, presentations by students, and laboratories.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor
LECTURE/LAB: 3
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VBS 8520 INTRODUCTION TO NEUROSCIENCE
This is a lecture/discussion course with supplemental laboratories and readings. Topics include introductions to neuroanatomy, neurophysiology and neuropharmacology of mammalian systems including current concepts in neuronal processing and integration.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate anatomy, physiology and pharmacology or equivalent and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour
TUTORIALS: 2 hours

VBS 8630 PRINCIPLES OF CELL PHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY
This advanced course on pharmacological principles is based on an understanding of cell physiology. The course covers membrane properties and principles of receptor function relevant to cell physiology and pharmacology and includes cellular, biochemical, and molecular aspects of drug actions. Students present and discuss weekly readings.
PREREQUISITES: Undergraduate biochemistry and physiology and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 1 hour
TUTORIAL: 2 hours

VBS 8760 BIOCHEMICAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides students with an understanding of the chemical and biochemical basis of toxicology. The principles of toxicology are the general focus of the course, but system specific aspects are covered with an emphasis on mechanisms of toxicity. The course includes lectures, seminars and student presentations.
PREREQUISITES: A course on Cellular Basis of Physiology and Pharmacology or an undergraduate course in pharmacology or toxicology that is approved by the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 1.5 hours
TUTORIAL: 1.5 hours

VBS 8810-8820 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VBS 8900 SEMINAR
In this course students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to Master of Science program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VBS 8920 ADVANCES IN FISH PHYSIOLOGY
This is an advanced course covering a range of selected topics on fish form and function. Interaction of fish with their ecosystems is emphasized. Students are actively involved by presenting and discussing readings provided weekly. Each student presents a formal seminar on a selected topic at the conclusion of the course.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in animal physiology (i.e. Bio 4020 or VBS 1210 and 1220, or equivalent) and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour

VBS 9900 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

COMPANION ANIMALS COURSES

VCA 8110 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF URINARY, ENDOCRINE AND METABOLIC/ELECTROLYTE DISORDERS
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of urinary, endocrine and metabolic/electrolyte disorders of companion animals. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8120 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides initial training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Although students will have primary case responsibility, it is expected that they will consult frequently with small animal medicine faculty and have close supervision when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful admission into a small animal medicine residency training program in the Department of Companion Animals, AVC.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8130 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides further training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and will consult often with small animal medicine faculty. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology,hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8140 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides advanced training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal medicine faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures.Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I & II
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8150 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course is given in the fall or winter and provides advanced training in small animal internal medicine. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal medicine faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal medicine faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing clinical or diagnostic procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to preventive medicine, nutrition, gastroenterology, nephrology, urology, oncology, cardiology, neurology, pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine and critical care, endocrinology, hematology and immunology. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of Clinics in Small Animal Internal Medicine I & II
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8160 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery, including the pathophysiology of advanced musculoskeletal diseases of companion animals and advanced surgical treatments. Topics include fracture management, juvenile orthopaedic disease, osteoarthritis and management, joint replacement, ligament and tendon injuries, immune mediated muscular and joint diseases, orthopaedic surgical instrumentation, and biomaterials used in orthopaedic implants. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8170 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND REHABILITATION
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in pathophysiology of advanced neurologic diseases of companion animals and advanced surgical and conservative treatment of these conditions. Topics include spinal fracture management, intervertebral disc disease, intracranial disease, immune mediated and infectious neurological diseases, neurological surgical instrumentation, and biomaterials used in neurosurgery. Students also discuss techniques and current theory regarding rehabilitation of neurologic animals and animals with musculoskeletal disease. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8180 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE CARDIOTHORACIC SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in advanced surgical management of diseases involving the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and thoracic cavity. Topics include pathophysiology of surgical diseases involving the cardiovascular system, respiratory system, and thoracic cavity; advanced surgical techniques to treat these diseases; and post-operative care and prognosis. Diseases covered include patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary neoplasia, thoracic wall neoplasia and trauma, brachycephalic airway syndrome, laryngeal paralysis, and tracheal collapse. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8190 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE UROGENITAL SYSTEM
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of diseases of the urogenital system and surgical treatment of these diseases. Topics include pre-operative management of patients with renal insufficiency, and indications and surgical methods for diseases involving the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra, and the male and female reproductive systems. Specific techniques for diagnostics are discussed, as well as specific instrumentation and biomaterials for treating diseases involving the urogenital system. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8210 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF RESPIRATORY AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS AND CRITICAL CARE
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of respiratory and cardiovascular disorders of companion animals. Issues in critical care medicine are included. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8220 ADVANCED SURGERY OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in the pathophysiology of diseases of the gastrointestinal and endocrine systems and surgical treatment of these diseases. Topics include gastric dilation volvulus; intestinal and gastric foreign bodies; intestinal and gastric neoplasia; persistent right aortic arch; abdominal wall and diaphragmatic hernias; diseases of the liver and gallbladder; diseases of the colon, thyroid, and parathyroid; and adrenal disease. Specific techniques for diagnostics are discussed, as well as specific instrumentation and biomaterials for treating diseases involving the gastrointestinal system. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)
VCA 8222 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL SURGERY I
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides initial training in small animal surgery. Students diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal surgery faculty. Although students will have primary case responsibility, it is expected that they will consult frequently with small animal surgery faculty and have close supervision when performing diagnostic or surgical procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to orthopedic, neurologic, oncologic and general soft tissue surgery with regards to pathophysiology of disease, diagnostic evaluation, surgical anatomy, surgical procedures and postoperative management. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

V
CA 8223 CLINICS IN SMALL ANIMAL SURGERY II
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides further training in small animal surgery. Students diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the close supervision of small animal surgery faculty. Although students will have primary case responsibility, it is expected that they will consult frequently with small animal surgery faculty and have close supervision when performing diagnostic or surgical procedures. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to orthopedic, neurologic, oncologic and general soft tissue surgery with regards to pathophysiology of disease, diagnostic evaluation, surgical anatomy, surgical procedures and postoperative management. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of VCA 8222
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8224 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL SURGERY I
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal surgery faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal surgery faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing diagnostic or surgical procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to orthopedic, neurologic, oncologic and general soft tissue surgery with regards to pathophysiology of disease, diagnostic evaluation, surgical anatomy, surgical procedures and postoperative management. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of VCA 8222 and VCA 8223
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)
VCA 8225 CLINICS IN ADVANCED SMALL ANIMAL SURGERY II
This course is given in any academic semester based on student enrolment and provides further advanced training in small animal surgery. Students interview owners, carry out physical examinations, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests and diagnose and treat canine and feline patients under the supervision of small animal surgery faculty. Students will have primary case responsibility and consult with small animal surgery faculty on an as needed basis. Students will be supervised as required when performing diagnostic or surgical procedures. Students will also be required to supervise teaching rounds on an occasional basis. Topics discussed in rounds include those related to orthopedic, neurologic, oncologic and general soft tissue surgery with regards to pathophysiology of disease, diagnostic evaluation, surgical anatomy, surgical procedures and postoperative management. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE:  DVM or equivalent degree and successful completion of VCA 8224
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3 (Credits based on at least 6 to 7 hours/week of teaching rounds/seminars)

VCA 8230 ADVANCED SURGICAL BIOLOGY, WOUND MANAGEMENT, AND EAR DISEASE
This course provides advanced training in small animal surgery. Students are instructed in advanced surgical pathophysiology of wounds and ear diseases, as well as advanced concepts regarding biomaterials, asepsis, and critical care for trauma and post-operative patients. Topics include wound healing and grafting, methods of sterilization and pathophysiology of shock, use of blood transfusion medicine antibiotics in surgical patients, and general surgical techniques. Students use refereed journal articles and approved textbooks, and practise advanced surgical procedures using cadavers and models in the laboratory component.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (credits based on 3 hours of classroom instruction per week and 9 hours of laboratory time)

VCA 8240 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF NEUROMUSCULAR, JOINT, HEMATOPOIETIC, AND IMMUNE MEDIATED DISORDERS AND ONCOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of neuromuscular, joint, hematopoietic, and immune mediated disorders of companion animals. Issues in medical oncology are included. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management, are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology, and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8250 COMPANION ANIMAL ANESTHESIA, RADIOLOGY, & CARDIOLOGY
This course provides advanced training in companion animal anesthesiology, radiology, and cardiology and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVAA, ACVR, ACVIM – cardiology), students spend 4 weeks in companion animal clinical anesthesia, radiology, and cardiology at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures (e.g. radiography) interpret diagnostic tests, and anesthetize companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include radiographic and anesthetic techniques, anatomy, physiology, pharmacology, pathophysiology etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VCA 8260 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE I
This course provides advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 8 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8270 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE II
This course provides additional advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8280 COMPANION ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE III
This course provides additional advanced training in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and companion animal community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8290 COMPANION ANIMAL TRIAGE AND EMERGENCY CARE
This course provides training in companion animal triage and emergency care and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, AVCAA, ACVR), students spend 12 weeks in companion animal triage services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat companion animal patients in need of emergency and critical care. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8310 ADVANCED MEDICINE OF GASTROINTESTINAL HEPATOBILIARY PANCREATIC AND INFECTIOUS DISORDERS AND NUTRITION
This course is a detailed study of the physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of gastrointestinal, hepatobiliary, pancreatic and infectious disorders of companion animals. Issues in nutritional management of disease are included. Areas of current interest or controversy, as well as recent advances in knowledge and management are emphasized. Requirements for the course include critical evaluation of current literature and presentation of seminars on selected topics.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in physiology, pathophysiology and medicine and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8320 ADVANCED COMPANION ANIMAL TOPICS
This fall semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in companion animal internal medicine, surgery, and radiology at a level appropriate for interns. The course meets two times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in companion animal medicine, surgery and radiology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8330 CLINICAL CASE PRESENTATION AND PROJECT REPORT
In this course students present a seminar to the AVC community during the Clinical Conference course on a clinical case relevant to their discipline. Students must also attend presentations by others in this course. In addition, they must submit a written report on a topic of their choice (clinical case report, clinical investigation, prospective or retrospective case study, literature review, etc.) approved by their supervisor prior to the conclusion of their program. The report should make a contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. Publication in a refereed journal is encouraged but not required. Students are assessed utilizing standardized rubrics for the two course components.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8410 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY I: APPLIED PHYSIOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the physiology and pathophysiology of different body systems as they relate to the clinical practice of veterinary anaesthesiology. Reviewed are neural, cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, and neuromuscular physiology, as well as body fluid composition and haemostasis. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the physiology and pathophysiology of different body systems and relates these aspects to the anaesthetic management of both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using videoconference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8420 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY II: APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the pharmacology of different classes of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs as they relate to the clinical practice of veterinary anaesthesiology. Reviewed are the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sedatives, analgesics, injectable and inhalant anaesthetics, local anaesthetics, and muscle relaxants, as well as autonomic and anti-inflammatory drugs. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the pharmacology of different classes of anaesthetic and analgesic drugs and relate these aspects to the anaesthetic management of both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using videoconference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8430 GRADUATE ANAESTHESIOLOGY III: CLINICAL ANESTHESIOLOGY
This course is a detailed study of the anaesthetic management of patients with disease of different body systems, as well as selected patients and procedures. This course emphasizes clinically relevant aspects of the pathophysiology of different disease processes in both small and large animals. The course is taught in a two-hour weekly seminar format using videoconference links between anaesthesiology faculty and graduate students at the Atlantic Veterinary College and other Canadian veterinary colleges.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VCA 8440 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course provides initial training in veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students will observe, perform, and dictate routine diagnostic imaging studies with particular emphasis given to routine radiography and ultrasonography. Dictation will be supervised by faculty. Students will evaluate appropriateness of diagnostic imaging clinical studies on an individual case basis. They will provide quality assurance of examinations with guidance by the diagnostic imaging faculty. Topics discussed: Positioning and quality control of routine radiographic small, large, and exotic imaging studies; proper dictation techniques, ultrasonographic applications, techniques, and interpretation principles; radiation safety. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8450 CLINICS IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course provides continued training in veterinary diagnostic imaging. Students will perform and dictate routine diagnostic imaging studies with particular emphasis given to routine radiography and ultrasonography. This course also serves as an introduction to Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy. Students will observe, perform, and dictate studies in these modalities. Dictation will be supervised by faculty. Students will evaluate appropriateness of diagnostic imaging clinical studies on an individual case basis. They will provide quality assurance of all modalities with guidance by the diagnostic imaging faculty. Topics discussed: Positioning and quality control of Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy; proper dictation techniques, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Nuclear Scintigraphy applications, techniques and interpretation principles; imaging artifacts, special procedures. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8440
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8460 ALTERNATIVE IMAGING – TECHNIQUES AND APPLICATIONS
This course is a detailed study of alternative imaging techniques used in veterinary medicine. Topics included: Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Nuclear Scintigraphy to include methods of image formation and display, imaging principles, with particular emphasis given to clinical applications (indications, equipment/instrumentation, common artifacts, scanning protocols, principles of interpretation, and appearance of various diseases with the various modalities).
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8510 ANATOMY AND PHYSICS OF DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING
This course will provide the student with an in-depth review of radiographic, ultrasonographic and cross-sectional anatomy, as well as basic physics uses in diagnostic imaging. Topics presented include: current anatomic nomenclature, radiographic anatomy of the axial and appendicular musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, digestive system and urogenital system, as well as athrology, comparative anatomy, and embryology. All of the aforementioned topics will be in regards to radiographic, sonographic, and cross-sectional anatomy. Production and physical properties of X-rays, equipment and accessories, darkroom, computed and digital radiography, radiographic quality, artifacts, and technique chart formation.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate courses in anatomy and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 3 hours

VCA 8520 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING I
This course provides advanced training in all currently used diagnostic imaging modalities. The student will be expected to provide quality assurance of all imaging examinations with guidance from faculty as needed. The student will dictate most imaging studies in consultation with the imaging faculty. Topics discussed: interpretation of various disease processes diagnosed by any imaging modality. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8440 and 8450
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8530 CLINICS IN ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING II
This course provides continued advanced training in all currently used diagnostic imaging modalities. The student will be expected to provide quality assurance of all imaging examinations. The student will dictate most imaging studies in consultation with the imaging faculty. Topics discussed: in-depth discussions of various disease processes diagnosed by any imaging modality. Students will be expected to provide some emergency duty for the diagnostic imaging service.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and VCA 8520
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VCA 8540 DIAGNOSTIC IMAGING – SPECIAL PROCEDURES
This course will provide the student with alternative imaging methods and diagnostic tests that may complement or supercede plain film radiography. Indications, contra- indications, technical aspects, standard imaging protocols (including positioning), and principles of interpretation of various imaging studies will be presented. Specific topics presented include: contrast media, esophagography, upper GI series, gastrography, colonography, excretory urography, cystography, urethrography, vaginourethrography, myelography, angiocardiography, venography, lymphangiography, valvuloplasty, valvular embolization techniques, arthrography, fistulography, stress radiography, peritoneography, and stress radiographic techniques.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours

VCA 8550 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, RADIATION BIOLOGY, SAFETY AND ARTIFACTS
This course provides a detailed study of physiology/pathophysiology as it relates to various veterinary diseases, as well as an introduction to radiation biology, safety, and artifacts. Specific topics include: Physiology and pathophysiology of specific organ systems: Alimentary, cardiovascular, central nervous system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, urogenital system, endocrine system. Radiation biology, oncology/tumor biology, radiation monitoring, and radiation protection.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 3 hours

VCA 8600 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc Program)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to satisfactorily complete a research project. The project may be based on either a clinical investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and successful admission into a small animal medicine residency training program in the Department of Companion Animals, AVC.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

VCA 8810-8820 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VCA 8900 SEMINAR
In this course students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to Master of Science program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VCA 9900 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

H
EALTH MANAGEMENT COURSES

VHM 8010 VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course provides the student with a working knowledge of the basic statistical techniques used in veterinary science. Topics include descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, non-parametric statistics, analysis of variance, regression and correlation and experimental design.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VHM 8020 ADVANCED VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course covers linear and logistic models, i.e. multiple linear and logistic regression and analysis of variance procedures for analysis of continuous and dichotomous outcomes with respect to multiple factors or explanatory variables. In addition, the course gives an introduction to experimental design and to analysis of data from complex experimental designs with multiple levels of variation or repeated measurements. The course is partially taught in conjunction with VHM 8120.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010 or permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2 or 3
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 3 hours

VHM 8110 EPIDEMIOLOGY I
This course provides students with an understanding of epidemiologic principles and methods with an emphasis on the concepts used in population health research. Specific topics covered include observational study design, sampling, measures of disease frequency, measures of association, validity (bias), confounding and stratified analyzes, screening tests and the design of clinical trials.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 5 hours
LABORATORIES: 1 hour

VHM 8120 EPIDEMIOLOGY II
This course provides students with a more detailed understanding of epidemiologic study design principles and a working knowledge of many multivariable statistical methods used in epidemiologic research. Specific topics covered include: linear regression, logistic regression, Poisson models, analysis of survival data, design of observational studies and validity (bias). The course is partially taught in conjunction with VHM 8020.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010, VHM 8110 or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: Four
LECTURES/SEMINARS: 5 hours
LABORATORIES: 1 hour

VHM 8220 POPULATION MEDICINE IN AQUACULTURE
This course covers current developments in finfish, crustacean and bivalve clinical health management with a particular focus on the epidemiology of infectious and non-infectious production problems. The lecture and seminar course topics include disease surveillance, diagnostic test evaluation, investigation of causal factors and evaluating health management practices. Field trips to aquaculture sites in the Atlantic Canada region are necessary.
PREREQUISITE: DVM, VPM 8110 (or equivalent) and VHM 8110 and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours

VHM 8230 HEALTH AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT IN SHELLFISH AND CRUSTACEAN AQUACULTURE
This course covers the principles and application of health and production management and practices of significant shellfish aquaculture species in Atlantic Canada, and crustacean aquaculture globally. Topics include the biology, production methods, diagnosis, treatment and management of production and disease problems, and aquatic ecosystem health. Field trips to aquaculture sites occur.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 Hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 1 Hour

VHM 8260 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE I
This course provides advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of board certified diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 8 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 8270 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE II
This course provides additional advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 12 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8280 LARGE ANIMAL CLINICAL PRACTICE III
This course provides more advanced training in large animal internal medicine, surgery, theriogenology and equine community practice and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of diplomates (ACVIM, ACVS, ACT, ABVP-Equine), students spend 12 weeks in large animal clinical services at the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include surgical techniques, surgical anatomy, preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8310 TOPICS IN BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course reviews current developments in frequently used statistical techniques and introduces the student to some advanced biostatistical techniques including survival analysis, factor analysis, and general linear models.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010 or VHM 8020 (preferred) and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2
LECTURES: 2 hours

VHM 8320 SELECTED TOPICS IN BIOSTATISTICS AND EPIDEMIOLOGY
This course reviews current developments in frequently used statistical techniques and introduces the student to advanced biostatistical techniques such as multilevel modelling, survival analysis, or Bayesian methodology.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010 or VHM 8020 (preferred) and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1
LECTURES: 1 hour

VHM 8330 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE RISK ANALYSIS APPLIED TO ANIMAL AND VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH
This course will cover the concepts of quantitative risk analysis based on stochastic simulation, and its application in a regulatory context for estimation of risk associated with live animal and animal food products. An introduction to qualitative risk analysis is included, contrasting the main advantages and disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative risk assessment. The course will introduce the concepts of scenario pathway modelling, probability distributions, statistical distributions applied in risk assessment, parameter estimation, uncertainty and variability analysis, sensitivity analysis, and use of risk assessment as decision support tool.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010, VHM 8110 or permission of the instructor
LECTURES: 3 hours

VHM 8340 INTRODUCTION TO QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT IN ANIMAL HEALTH AND FOOD SAFETY
This introductory online course will cover the basic concepts of quantitative risk assessment applied to animal health and food safety. The course will introduce the following concepts: scenario-pathway modeling, food-processing models, probability distributions applied in risk assessment, uncertainty and variability analysis, sensitivity analysis, and use of risk assessment as a decision support tool.
PREREQUISITE: VHM 8010, VHM 8110 or permission of the instructor
LECTURES (tutorials, videos and forum discussions): 2 hours/day
LABORATORIES (minor assignments and discussion forums): 1 hour/day
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 8350 ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL TOPICS I
This fall semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in large animal internal medicine, surgery, and theriogenology at a level appropriate for post-graduate veterinary interns. The course meets three times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in large animal medicine, surgery and theriogenology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8360 ADVANCED LARGE ANIMAL TOPICS II
This winter semester lecture/seminar course reviews recent advances in large animal internal medicine, surgery, and theriogenology at a level appropriate for post-graduate veterinarians undergoing advanced clinical training. The course meets three times a week and includes a mix of instructor- and student-directed in-depth discussions of complicated clinical cases and relevant current literature in large animal medicine, surgery and theriogenology. Students are evaluated on their case/paper selection, critical reading skills, presentation skills, and participation in discussions. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required. Students receive formal mid-course and final evaluations.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8370 CLINICAL CASE PRESENTATION AND PROJECT REPORT
In this course students present a seminar to the AVC community during the Clinical Conference course on a clinical case relevant to their discipline. Students must also attend presentations by others in this course. In addition, they must submit a written report on a topic of their choice (clinical case report, clinical investigation, prospective or retrospective case study, literature review, etc.) approved by their supervisor prior to the conclusion of their program. The report should make a contribution to the body of knowledge in the candidate’s field. Publication in a refereed journal is encouraged but not required. Students are assessed utilizing standardized rubrics for the two course components.  This course is graded Pass/Fail.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, acceptance as a graduate student in a clinical discipline, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 8410 BOVINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in bovine theriogenology with emphasis placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: applied reproductive physiology of cattle, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, diseases and conditions affecting the reproductive system of cattle, and reproductive efficiency in cattle management. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques, including breeding soundness evaluation, is provided. Embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies are discussed. Students participate in herd visits to dairy and beef farms and are involved in bovine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VHM 8420 EQUINE THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in equine theriogenology with emphasis placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: applied reproductive physiology of horses, control of the estrous cycle and ovulation, diseases and conditions affecting the reproductive system of horses, and breeding management. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques, including breeding soundness evaluation, is provided. Embryo transfer and advanced reproductive technologies are discussed. Students are also involved in equine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8430 EQUINE BREEDING FARM THERIOGENOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in equine theriogenology with emphasis placed on theriogenology as practised on breeding farms. Any necessary training in diagnostic techniques is provided. Students participate in visits to equine stud farms at the height of the breeding season and are involved in equine reproduction cases that are presented to the veterinary teaching hospital.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8450 LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY
The course involves advanced training in veterinary surgery with emphasis on food animal and equine general surgery. Emphasis is placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: surgery of the skin and adnexa, orthopaedic-related surgery, abdominal surgery, respiratory tract surgery, and urogenital surgery. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic evaluation of surgical cases is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, and those examined at farms and training facilities.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree; permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours

VHM 8460 EQUINE SURGERY AND LAMENESS
The course involves advanced training in equine surgery with emphasis on orthopedic and soft tissue surgery. Emphasis is placed on areas that are of most benefit to individual students. Topics include: surgery of the skin and adnexa, orthopedic related surgery, lameness evaluation, abdominal surgery, respiratory tract surgery, and urogenital surgery. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic evaluation of surgical or lameness cases is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital, and cases examined at farms and training facilities.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8480 ADVANCED CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE I
This course provides training in large animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 12 weeks on the large animal medicine clinical service in the VTH. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8490 ADVANCED CLINICS IN LARGE ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE II
This course provides advanced training in large animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under the supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 12 weeks on the large animal medicine clinical service in the VTH. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal and equine patients. Topics discussed in rounds include preventive medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: VHM 8480, DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8510 TOPICS IN ANIMAL NUTRITION
This course reviews a selection of new developments in ruminant and non-ruminant nutrition. Research papers in the discipline are critically evaluated.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
SEMINARS: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 2

VHM 8600 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc program)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to satisfactorily complete a small research project. The project may be based on either a clinical investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

VHM 8620 ADVANCED CLINICS IN FOOD ANIMAL INTERNAL MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in food animal internal medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 9 weeks in the large animal medicine clinical service at the AVC and 3 weeks in the food animal medicine and surgery service at the University of Montreal, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Students will also be given the opportunity to spend time with the farm services section of the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat food animal patients. Topics discussed in daily rounds include preventative medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of a food animal clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8630 ADVANCED CLINICS IN EQUINE INTERNAL AND PREVENTATIVE MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in equine internal and preventative medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under supervision of an ACVIM diplomate, students spend 11 weeks in the large animal medicine clinical service at the AVC and one week in equine dentistry. Students will also be given the opportunity to spend time with the equine ambulatory services section of the AVC. Using the problem-oriented approach, students examine patients, perform diagnostic procedures, interpret diagnostic tests, and diagnose and treat equine patients. Topics discussed in daily rounds include preventative medicine, infectious disease, diseases affecting performance or production, pharmacology, etc. Students are required to present an in-depth analysis of an equine clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds, with at least one case emphasizing preventative medicine. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LAB/SEMINAR: 6 hours

VHM 8640 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the first year of an internal medicine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor-and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, and permission of the instructor
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8650 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the second year of an internal medicine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor-and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 8640 and permission of the instructor
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8660 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL MEDICINE III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in internal medicine and the physiologic mechanisms underlying health and disease of large animals, at a level appropriate for the third year of an internal medicine MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor-and student-directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 8650 and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES or SEMINAR: 1 hour

VHM 8670 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the first year of a surgical MSc/MVSc Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8680 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the second year of a surgical MSc/MVSc – Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 8670, and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8690 RECENT ADVANCES IN LARGE ANIMAL SURGERY III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in surgery, lameness and surgical diseases of large animals, at a level appropriate for the third year of a surgical MSc/MVSc – Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent, VHM 8680, and permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8710 HERD HEALTH AND PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE
This course provides graduate students with an understanding of the principles of Herd Health and Production Management programs, udder and foot health, control of infectious diseases, fertility, young stock rearing, and farm economics. Lab exercises include analysis of data of farms that are enrolled in the Herd Health and Production Management program of the Farm Service group of the AVC.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent and permission of the coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 hours
LECTURE/LAB: 5 hours

VHM 8720 ADVANCED CLINICS IN EQUINE WELFARE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE
This course provides in-depth training in equine welfare and preventive medicine and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ABVP (Equine) Diplomate, students spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Topics emphasized in this course include application and understanding of the Equine Code of Practice, preventive medicine, infectious disease, dentistry and population/herd health. For this course, students are required to present an in-depth analysis of an equine clinical case once monthly in house officer rounds. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8730 EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION I
This course provides training in equine sports medicine and rehabilitation and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Students are expected to be at entry level and will be working under direct supervision of an ABVP (Equine) diplomate, and will spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Topics include diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques utilized to support the equine athlete from birth through adolescence, training, competition, injury, rehabilitation and retirement. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the VTH and those examined at farms and training facilities. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8740 EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND REHABILITATION II
This course provides more advanced training in equine sports medicine and rehabilitation and is offered in any academic semester based on student enrolment. Under close supervision of an ABVP (Equine) diplomate, students spend 12 weeks in the Ambulatory Equine Service of the VTH. Students are expected to work more independently in performing diagnostic, therapeutic and rehabilitation techniques utilized to support the equine athlete from birth through adolescence, training, competition, injury, rehabilitation and retirement. Any necessary additional training in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques is provided. Students are involved in cases admitted to the VTH and those examined at farms and training facilities. Students enrolled in this course are expected to participate in emergency duty.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8750 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE I
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the first year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8760 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS MEDICINE AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE II
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the second year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8770 RECENT ADVANCES IN EQUINE SPORTS AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE III
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to review recent advances in equine sport and preventive medicine, at a level appropriate for the third year of an Ambulatory Equine MSc/MVSc-Residency program. The course will meet for one contact hour per week for the fall and winter semesters, and in the first summer session, and will involve a mix of instructor and student directed in-depth discussions of the relevant current literature or recently published texts. Considerable out-of-class preparation is required.
PREREQUISITES: DVM or equivalent and/or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VHM 8810-8820 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VHM 8900 SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc or MVSc program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VHM 9900 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

PATHOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY COURSES

VPM 8020 ADVANCES IN PROTOZOOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of recent advances in knowledge of the major protozoan parasites of animals. Lectures and seminars cover a variety of topics including developmental cycles, pathogenicity, immunogenicity, diagnostic procedures, and epidemiology of several protozoan diseases.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hour
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 8110 DISEASES OF CULTURED FISH
This course reviews fish culture systems and the diseases encountered in cultured fish. The lecture and laboratory course covers culture techniques for fin fish and shell fish and the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of fish diseases.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or BSc (Biology) and permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VPM 8120 RECENT ADVANCES IN IMMUNOLOGY
This is a lecture/seminar course designed to study in detail areas of immunology which reflect current interest or controversy. Major concepts in immunology are covered.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 1 hour
SEMINARS: 2 hours

VPM 8210 CONCEPTS IN VIRAL PATHOGENESIS
This is an advanced course reviewing the mechanisms by which viruses cause disease. The emphasis is on general concepts and mechanisms. Selected viral infections are used to illustrate the general concepts of virus-host interaction.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 8220 ADVANCES IN BACTERIOLOGY
This course focuses on recent advances in the mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis and molecular microbiology. Lectures and seminars will cover well-understood topics in these areas and will include the application of biotechnology for the development of vaccines and diagnostic reagents.
PREREQUISITE: Undergraduate microbiology and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 8230 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is taught necropsy techniques including how to examine animals submitted for post mortem diagnosis. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in the fall season are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly pathology rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and macro- and micro-photography.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8240 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY II
In this course, the student gains further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in the winter are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8250 DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY III
In this course, the student is expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in spring and summer are emphasized. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8260 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
In this course, the student is expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques and interpretation of lesions. Morphologic diagnosis of diseases prevalent in a given season is emphasized and a more in-depth discussion of their pathogenesis is expected. The student is required to complete at least 50-60 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8230, VPM 8240, or VPM 8250 or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

V
PM 8270 DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, initial training in diagnostic clinical pathology during the fall is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the summer and fall.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8280 DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, training in diagnostic clinical pathology during the winter is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the winter and spring.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8330 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, further experience in diagnostic clinical pathology during the fall is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent in the summer and fall.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8270 & VPM 8280, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8340 ADVANCED DIAGNOSTIC CLINICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, further experience in diagnostic clinical pathology during the winter is provided. Interpretations and presentations of clinical biochemistry, hematology, urology and cytology samples from a variety of species are undertaken by the student. Formal case discussions and directed reading supplement the clinical material, with emphasis on diseases prevalent during the winter and spring.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8270 & VPM 8280, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8350 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is provided initial training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the fall. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8360 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY II
In this course, the student is provided further training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the winter. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM degree or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8370 SURGICAL PATHOLOGY III
In this course, the student is provided further training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the spring and summer. Morphologic diagnosis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 30-50 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: DVM degree or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8380 ADVANCED SURGICAL PATHOLOGY
In this course, the student is provided a more advanced training in gross and microscopic examination of biopsy materials and fixed specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory during the second year of study. Morphologic diagnosis, pathogenesis and prognosis are emphasized, especially with regard to neoplastic diseases. The student is required to complete at least 50-60 cases. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8350, VPM 8360, or VPM 8370 or equivalent, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8445 DIAGNOSTIC AQUATIC PATHOLOGY I
In this course, the student is taught diagnostic techniques including performing a necropsy and collecting and preparing samples from aquatic species submitted for post mortem diagnosis. Recognition of diseases, pathogenesis and morphologic diagnoses are emphasized. The student is required to complete 30 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory. Selected cases are discussed at weekly pathology rounds. In addition, the student is exposed to techniques in histology, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and macro- and micro-photography.  This course is restricted to holders of a DVM or equivalent degree.
PREREQUISITE:  Permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURE/LAB:  8 hours

VPM 8450 DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY
In this course students gain “hands-on” experience in clinical veterinary bacteriology. Various bacteria associated with disease conditions in animals are identified using microscopic (including fluorescent microscopy), cultural and biochemical methods. Emphasis is placed on study of case histories, and interpretation of results including antimicrobial susceptibility data. Other responsibilities include familiarization with new diagnostic techniques, and completion of 30 cases by each student.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8460 DIAGNOSTIC BACTERIOLOGY II
In this course students gain additional “hands-on” experience in clinical veterinary bacteriology. Various bacteria associated with disease conditions in animals are identified using microscopic (including fluorescent microscopy), cultural and biochemical methods. Emphasis is placed on study of case histories, and interpretation of results including antimicrobial susceptibility data. Other responsibilities include familiarization with new diagnostic techniques, and completion of 30 cases by each student.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 6 hours

VPM 8470 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY I
This practical course deals with the isolation and identification of viruses in cell culture, chick embryos or animals and their detection using immunoassays. The student is required satisfactorily to complete about 60 cases. In weekly discussions, special emphasis is also placed on understanding approaches to the diagnosis of viral diseases, sterilization, disinfection and biosafety, sterile technique in collection of specimens, and processing, packaging and shipment of specimens for virus diagnosis.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LABORATORY: 5 hours
SEMINAR: 0.5
TUTORIAL: 0.5

VPM 8480 DIAGNOSTIC VETERINARY VIROLOGY II
This practical course deals with the isolation and identification of viruses in cell culture, chick embryos or animals and their detection using immunoassays. Tutorials utilize selected clinical cases to familiarize the student with the interpretation of laboratory test results. Current trends in diagnostic virology, serology and vaccinology are covered in group discussions on assigned readings in scientific literature.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8470 and permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours
TUTORIAL: 4 hours

VPM 8490 DIAGNOSTIC IMMUNOLOGY
This course covers a variety of immunodiagnostic techniques. Principles of serologic techniques and their application to disease diagnosis are discussed. The development of these techniques and their validation is covered in lecture and during laboratory sessions. Principles of immunohistological testing for both infectious diseases and for immunological diseases are discussed with relevant clinical examples, as are other immunochemical tests for immune-mediated disease.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours

VPM 8520 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES
In this two-semester course, the student is taught necropsy and investigative techniques for the diagnosis of disease in free-living and zoo mammals (land and marine) and birds. Participation in additional laboratory procedures is encouraged. The student is required to satisfactorily complete between 40 and 50 cases. The report on every case is to include a summary of all ancillary tests done in other units of the diagnostic laboratory, and brief comments on the significance of the disease diagnosed. Selected cases are discussed at weekly necropsy rounds.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LAB/SEMINARS: 3 hours

VPM 8540 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES I
In this introductory course, students are taught necropsy and investigative techniques for the diagnosis of diseases in free- living wild animals (mammals, birds, and occasional reptiles and amphibians) submitted for post-mortem examination. Pathogenesis and morphologic diagnosis of diseases and their management implications are emphasized. Students are also encouraged to review collections of gross and histopathological slides of common wildlife diseases in the region and elsewhere.

VPM 8550 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES II
In this course, the student gains further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population. The student is also encouraged to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources, subject to approval by the instructor.
PREREQUISITE: VPM 8540

VPM 8560 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES III
In this course, students are expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population, with increasingly independent work performance (necropsy, analysis, and interpretation of diagnostic cases). Students are encouraged to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources (subject to approval of the instructor).
PREREQUISITES: VPM 8540 and VPM 8550

VPM 8570 DIAGNOSIS OF WILDLIFE DISEASES IV
In this course, students are expected to gain further experience in necropsy techniques, interpretation of lesions, and evaluation of the significance of the diseases identified in individual wild animals for the rest of the population, with a high degree of independent work performance (necropsy, analysis and interpretation of diagnostic cases). Students are required to either write and submit one article for the newsletter of the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre or give an oral presentation on a pertinent wildlife health topic at the Departmental level or at meetings of provincial Departments of Natural Resources (subject to approval of the instructor).
PREREQUISITES: VPM 8530, 8540 and 8560

VPM 8600 RESEARCH PROJECT (MVSc PROGRAM)
Each student in the MVSc program is required, under the supervision of a graduate faculty committee, to complete satisfactorily a small research project in the second year of study. The project may be based on either a laboratory investigation or a special topic such as a prospective or retrospective case study. The project report should make some contribution to the body of knowledge in that field and it should lead to a paper suitable for publication in a refereed journal.
PREREQUISITE: DVM or equivalent degree, permission of the instructor.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6
LAB/SEMINARS: 12 hours

VPM 8620 CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of cellular pathology. Lectures and seminars centre around a variety of topics including immunopathology, inflammation, healing disorders of cell growth, cell degeneration and cell necrosis. Both mammalian and ectothermic aquatic animal systems are discussed.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of Course Coordinator.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
SEMINARS: 1 hour

VPM 8630 ADVANCED RESPIRATORY PATHOLOGY
This course involves advanced training in veterinary and comparative respiratory pathology, with emphasis on mechanisms of disease. This advanced course provides residents and graduate students with an in-depth understanding of the respiratory defence mechanism, host response to injury, inflammation, pathogenesis of diseases and animal models of human disease. The course consists of formal lectures and independent work by the graduate students describing microscopic lesions (histopathology). Two seminars will be presented by the graduate student.
PREREQUISITE: Permission by the instructor
LECTURES: 2 hours
LAB/SEMINARS: 2 hours
TUTORIALS: 2
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

VPM 8710 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY TECHNIQUES
This course introduces students to basic techniques involved in recombinant DNA research and their application to the genetic analysis of animal viruses and other pathogens of veterinary importance. Students learn the principles and practical aspects of molecular biology techniques through lectures (2 hrs./wk.), and hands-on-experience (6 hrs.+/wk.). Emphasis is placed on the following topics: techniques for the manipulation of nucleic acids, hybridization methods, gene cloning, DNA sequencing, gene expression, and PCR technology.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 6 hours

VPM 8720 ADVANCED HELMINTHOLOGY
This course is an in-depth study of helminth taxonomy/morphology and recent advances in knowledge of the major helminth parasites of wild and domestic animals. Identification of helminth parasites recovered at necropsy and on histologic sections is taught through lecture and laboratories. Additional lecture/laboratory topics include field and laboratory techniques used in the study of helminth infections and recent advances in disease pathogenesis, life cycle transmission, diagnostic procedures and immunology of helminth parasites.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURES: 2 hours
LABORATORIES: 2 hours

VPM 8810-8820 DIRECTED STUDIES
This course is a thorough study of a selected problem or topic in the discipline. The course may include directed reading, directed research, or collection and analysis of data. The student will prepare a written report and present a seminar on the topic.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1-3

VPM 8850 BIOINFORMATICS FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS
In addition to participating in all the lectures and activities of the undergraduate course CS 3220/BIO 3220, graduate students are expected to accomplish a graduate project and attend extra guest lectures specially prepared for graduate students (when the graduate enrolment is 3 or more). The graduate project would be related to the student’s research, so the thesis supervisor will be invited to join in the process of choosing and evaluating the graduate project. The graduate project will be worth 30% of the final grade.
Cross-listed with CS 3220, BIO 3220, and HB 8850.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the graduate program and permission of the instructor
Note: No student can be awarded more than one course credit among HB 8850, VPM 8850, CS 3220, and BIO 3220.

VPM 8900 SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to MSc program.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

VPM 9900 SEMINAR
This is a seminar course in which students attend and present annual seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1

Master of Education (MEd)

The MEd program is designed to provide experienced educators with the knowledge and skills required to become more effective educational leaders. The overall aim of the program is to promote and support educational scholarship, research, and improved practice.

A) PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

Students enrolled in the graduate program are required to choose a thesis-based or course-based option. In the thesis-based option students will complete five compulsory courses, one elective course, and a thesis (4 course equivalents). In the course-based option, students will complete seven compulsory courses and three elective courses.

THESIS-BASED OPTION

Compulsory Courses (5 required courses)
Education 6110 Introduction to Research Methods in Education
Education 6120 Quantitative Research Design
OR
Education 6130 Qualitative Research Design
Education 6140 Theories of Research and Learning
Education 6150 Educational Leadership
Education 6190 Critical Pedagogy

Elective Courses (1 required)
Education 6010 Selected Topics in Education
Education 6160 Action Research in Education
Education 6170 Issues in Educational Leadership
Education 6180 Learning, Leadership and Reflective Practice
Education 6220 Research on Learning Difficulties
Education 6240 Change: Leadership in Learning
Education 6250 Curriculum: Leadership in Learning
Education 6260 Technology: Leadership in Learning
Education 6270 Global Education
Education 6280 International Education and Development
Education 6290 Program Evaluation
Education 6300 Perspectives in Ecology and Sustainable Leadership
Education 6310 Leadership in Postcolonial Education
Education 6320 Leadership in Languages and Literacies
Education 6910 Directed Study
Education 6950 Graduate Seminar
Thesis

Education 6990 (4 course equivalents)

COURSE-BASED OPTION

Compulsory Courses (7 required courses)
Education 6110 Introduction to Research Methods in Education
Education 6120 Quantitative Research Design
OR
Education 6130 Qualitative Research Design
OR
Education 6160 Action Research in Education
Education 6140 Theories of Research and Learning
Education 6150 Educational Leadership
Education 6170 Issues in Educational Leadership
Education 6190 Critical Pedagogy
Education 6250 Curriculum: Leadership in Learning

Elective Courses (3 courses required)
Education 6010 Selected Topics in Education
Education 6180 Learning, Leadership and Reflective Practice
Education 6210 Current Research in Learning
Education 6220 Research on Learning Difficulties
Education 6230 Statistics for Research in Education
Education 6240 Change: Leadership in Learning
Education 6260 Technology: Leadership in Learning
Education 6270 Global Education
Education 6280 International Education and Development
Education 6290 Program Evaluation
Education 6300 Perspectives in Ecology and Sustainable Leadership
Education 6310 Leadership in Postcolonial Education
Education 6320 Leadership in Languages and Literacies
Education 6330 Multiliteracies and New literacies
Education 6910 Directed Study
Education 6950 Graduate Seminar

B) THE THESIS

Each candidate in the thesis-based option is required to submit a thesis based upon research conducted under supervision as described in this section of the calendar. The thesis must demonstrate the student’s capacity for original and independent research and should extend the knowledge base in the field under study.

General specifications as to paper, format, order, and binding are available from the Office of the Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies.

The student should consult frequently with the Supervisor and the Supervisory Committee when preparing the thesis. After the final draft has been read and approved by the members of the Supervisory Committee, four copies must be submitted to the Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies for dissemination to members of the Examining Committee. These copies must be submitted no later than four weeks prior to the student’s oral defence.

The Master’s Examination

The final oral examination, which is devoted chiefly to the defence of the thesis, is a Faculty examination, identified as the Master’s Examination. Normally, the Examining Committee consists of the two members of the Supervisory Committee, one other member of the Faculty of Education, and one reader, external to the University, who submits a written report attesting to the quality of the work. The
Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies selects the Examining Committee at the request of the Supervisor, appoints the Chair, and is responsible for notifying the Dean of Education of its composition.

Normally, the final oral examination is open to the public; however, members of the public may question the student only upon the invitation of the Chair of the Examining Committee.

The examination is passed and the thesis approved if there is no more than one negative vote; an abstention is considered to be a negative vote. The Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies is responsible for reporting the result of the examination to the Dean of Education. The result is recorded as “Accepted as is,” “Accepted after minor revision,” “Accepted after substantial revision,” or “Unacceptable.” The result “Accepted after minor revision” normally entails editorial changes. If the result is “Accepted after substantial revision,” the student may be given the opportunity by the Examining Committee to revise the thesis with or without defending again. If the thesis revision is successful, the thesis supervisor is to sign before the thesis is presented to the Graduate Studies Committee. Six copies, including one unbound copy, should be presented to the Graduate Studies Co-ordinator. If the result is “Unacceptable,” the student may be given one opportunity by the Examining Committee to revise the thesis and to defend it again.

Submission of Thesis

When the thesis, in its final form, has been prepared after the final oral examination, the student will bring six unbound copies to the Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies at least three weeks prior to Convocation. Each copy must be submitted in a separate folder with the pages numbered and arranged in the appropriate order. The thesis must be free from typographical and other errors. All copies must include the Certificate of Approval signed by the Examination Committee and the members of the Supervisory Committee. Also included must be a brief Abstract and a copy of the circulation waiver and the copying licence.

When accepted by the Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, one copy will be retained for microfilming and for deposit in the University Library after being bound. A second copy will be released to the Faculty of Education. A third copy will be released to the student’s supervisor and three copies will be released to the student.

Publication

The University requires publication of the thesis in the following manner:

One unbound copy of the thesis is forwarded to Library and Archives Canada, together with an agreement form signed by the candidate authorizing Library and Archives Canada to microfilm the thesis and to make microfilm copies available for sale on request. Library and Archives Canada will film the thesis exactly as it is and will list the thesis in Canadiana as a publication of Library and Archives Canada. A fee is charged by Library and Archives Canada to offset the cost of microfilming.

Library and Archives Canada’s Microfilm Agreement form will be sent to the candidate prior to the Master’s Examination, to be signed and submitted to the Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies immediately after the successful completion of the examination.

The student, in consultation with the Supervisor and the Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, shall have the right to request that circulation and/or copying of the thesis in any form be withheld for up to one year.

Circulation and Copying of Thesis In normal circumstances, as a condition of engaging in graduate study at the University, the author of a thesis grants certain licences and waivers in respect of the circulation and of copying of the thesis:

i. to the University Librarian, a waiver permitting the circulation of the thesis as part of the Library collection;

ii. to the University, a licence to make single copies of the thesis under carefully specified conditions; and

iii. to Library and Archives Canada, a licence to microfilm the thesis under carefully specified conditions.

Copyright Provision

Copies of the thesis shall have on the title page the words, “In partial fulfilment of requirements for the degree of Master of Education.” The international copyright notice, which consists of three elements in the same line—the letter “C” enclosed in a circle; the name of the copyright owner (the student); and the year should appear as a bottom line on the title page of the thesis.

c) GRADUATE COURSES

ED 6010 SPECIAL TOPICS IN EDUCATION
In this course, students investigate special topics in the field of education. Permission of the Coordinator of Graduate Studies and the Dean is required.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 1, 2 or 3 credit hours

ED 6020 INCLUSIVE EDUCATION AND DIVERSE LEARNERS
This course explores student diversity within the context of inclusive education. Current theoretical and conceptual frameworks in the field of inclusive education and critical disability studies will be examined to better support a ‘capacity approach’ to diverse students learning. Specifically, students will examine and critique dominant views informing schooling policies and practices regarding current issues related to diversity and equity in learning environments.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6030 INCLUSIVE PRACTICES FOR DIVERSE LEARNERS
This course involves the examination of theoretical and practical aspects regarding inclusive strategies and practices for diverse learners in educational settings. The principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) will be examined in relation to instructional methods, materials, activities, and evaluation procedures for diverse learners.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6110 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH METHODS IN EDUCATION
In this course, students are introduced to a variety of methods that are appropriate for conducting research in educational settings. Students develop an understanding of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies. Students are introduced to the process of planning, conducting, and reporting research on learning and instruction, and to the critical analysis of current studies reported in educational literature.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6120 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
In this course, students explore the characteristics of quantitative methodology and examine their usefulness in conducting educational research. The methods discussed include causal-comparative, correlational, and experimental. Students learn how to state hypotheses, define and measure variables, select samples, collect and analyze data, and prepare research reports. Students design a research study on a topic related to learning and instruction.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6130 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGN
In this course, students study the development of qualitative research methodology and explore approaches drawn from this model that are used frequently by educational researchers. Students examine the use of observational techniques, interviews, questionnaires, and personal and official documents. Students design studies using qualitative methods.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6140 THEORIES OF RESEARCH AND LEARNING
In this course, students address the role of theory in educational research. The aim is to familiarize graduate students with various theoretical frameworks including theories and principles of learning.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6150 EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
In this course, students examine the field of educational leadership. Educational leadership extends beyond the role of the school administrator and focuses upon the development of teachers as leaders who impact on creating effective educational environments. Students research aspects of leadership that impact on schools, and explore models of effective leadership through case studies and simulation.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6160 ACTION RESEARCH IN EDUCATION
In this course, students explore ways in which teachers can systematically examine their own classroom practices using action research strategies. Emphasis is placed on issues such as topic selection, methodology, data collection and analysis, and interpretation of results. This process of inquiry is directed towards reflective practice.
PREREQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6170 ISSUES IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP
In this course, students examine current issues in educational leadership. Students research the factors that influence educational leadership, such as socio-economic trends, school restructuring, curriculum development, and educational technology.
PREREQUISITE: Education 6110 and Education 6150 or equivalent, or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6180 LEARNING, LEADERSHIP AND REFLECTIVE PRACTICE
In this course, students examine processes of reflective practice such as analytic problem-solving and self-assessment. Students research reflective practices that have made positive contributions to learning and leadership.
PREREQUISITE: Education 6110 and Education 6150 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6190 CRITICAL PEDAGOGY
In this course, students examine the social conditions and practices that shape education. Students explore schools in their historical, economic, political, cultural, and social contexts.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6220 RESEARCH ON LEARNING DIFFICULTIES
In this course, students examine the research on learning difficulties, and conduct research to identify effective strategies that can be applied in their teaching.
PREREQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6225 ASSESSMENT FOR STUDENTS WITH LEARNING CHALLENGES
In this course, you will be introduced to the overall process and considerations involved with formal individualized educational assessment of students (Level B assessment) and become familiar with several specific assessment tools, their administration, and how to write the resulting academic assessment report. We will also study the top three Learning Theories; Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism, and apply those theories to learning and, more specifically, assessment.
PREREQUISITE:  ED 6110
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

ED 6240 CHANGE: LEADERSHIP IN LEARNING
In this course, students examine the research on models of innovation and change that have had an impact on education over the last 30 years. Students explore the role of leadership in facilitating change in education.
PREREQUISITE: Education 6110 and Education 6150 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6250 CURRICULUM: LEADERSHIP IN LEARNING
In this course, students examine research into recent curriculum developments that are based on principles of integration, resource-based learning, and holistic learning, and which require the use of alternative assessment approaches. In addition, the impact of these developments on teachers’ instructional strategies and students’ learning are investigated. The focus is on the integration of knowledge about curriculum design and teaching in order to develop leadership skills for curriculum change.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6260 TECHNOLOGY: LEADERSHIP IN LEARNING
This course provides an opportunity for students to examine and critique current research trends in information and communication technology in education. Leadership models for the implementation of technology plans are studied and evaluated. A major portion of work for this course takes place in an online learning environment.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6270 GLOBAL EDUCATION
In this course, students examine the theory and practice of global education as it has developed in Canada and elsewhere. Other curriculum innovations that have contributed to global education (e.g., development education, environmental education, human rights education, peace education) are also examined. Interactive and participatory learning methodologies are used to encourage reflection on the teaching of contemporary social and global issues in a variety of educational contexts.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6280 INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT
In this course, students examine how education is organized and practised in other countries, and its relationship to cultural, economic, and social development. Insights into education systems in Canada are afforded through comparing these with others around the world. In addition to common themes of study, students explore topics of their choice through the methodology of a comparative case study. Electronic communication with teachers in other countries provides first-hand information.
PRE OR CO-REQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6290 PROGRAM EVALUATION
In this course, students study the various concepts and issues in program evaluation. Students examine literature on program evaluation to understand the methods and theory required to conduct an evaluation.
PREREQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6300 PERSPECTIVES IN ECOLOGY AND SUSTAINABLE LEADERSHIP
This interdisciplinary course explores contemporary topics related to the environment, such as ecological consciousness, place attachment, principles of ecological design, sustainability and responsible stewardship, ecological citizenship, and environmental practice. Students apply a critical inquiry framework and consider philosophical ideologies related to anthropocentric and ecocentric perspectives, environmental ethics, and ecological worldviews. Participatory methodologies are encouraged to promote leadership in ecological knowledge and environmental preservation in a variety of contexts.
PREREQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6310 LEADERSHIP IN POSTCOLONIAL EDUCATION
In this course, students consider postcolonial history and key texts as they critically examine a variety of theoretical frameworks within postcolonial education. The postcolonial context of education within particular Indigenous and colonized societies provides a major focus for the course. The role of educational leaders in negotiating complex change in specific contexts is considered.
PREREQUISITE: Education 6110 and Education 6150 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6320 LEADERSHIP IN LANGUAGES AND LITERACIES
In this course, students address the role of educational leaders in the implementation of policies and practices sustaining languages and literacies in particular contexts. A variety of theoretical frameworks and principles of language learning and plurilingualism are considered. Successes and challenges related to leadership in language retention and the development of multi-literacies in education are carefully examined.
PREREQUISITE: Education 6110 and Education 6150 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6330 MULTILITERACIES AND NEW LITERACIES
This course introduces students to theories of literacy as situated social practice. Drawing on theories of Multiliteracies and New Literacies as developed in classic and current readings, students will be given the opportunity to consider how such theories connect to issues of school, work, and leisure. Students will also be encouraged to experiment with using a variety of Multiliteracies as they work through the course material.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6340 AN INTRODUCTION TO 21ST CENTURY TEACHING AND LEARNING
In this course, students will explore, assess, and critique various perspectives on the sociocultural, economic, political, and technological forces that are shaping education in the 21st century. Various forms of synchronous and asynchronous online environments will be introduced.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6420 WORKPLACE LEARNING AND LEADERSHIP
This course provides graduate students with a general understanding and awareness of organizational cultures and leadership practices through experiential and reflective learning in diverse educational/work placement settings. Participants will have opportunities to develop cross-cultural awareness and communication skills while making contributions to the educational/work settings in which they are placed. Participants will identify action research topics and applications related to workplace-learning and leadership.
PREREQUISITE: Education 6110 or permission of graduate studies coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6710 FOUNDATIONS OF SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY LIBRARIANSHIP
This course provides participants working in a wide range of library contexts with the historical foundations and theoretical framework for the role, philosophy, and administration of school and community libraries and to the role of teacher-librarians in the context of 21st century schools and learning.

ED 6720 SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY LIBRARIES FOR 21st CENTURY LEARNING
This course explores the theoretical underpinnings of information and digital literacies and how they are developed within school and local library programs. Participants examine research supporting the guided inquiry process, problem-based learning, the effective use of digital and traditional learning resources, as well as how teacher-librarians, classroom teachers and community members collaborate to design and implement effective multi-literacies instruction.

ED 6730 BUILDING A CULTURE FOR READING IN A DIGITAL AGE
This course examines the emerging principles and practices influencing the development of reading habits in children and youth and the role of libraries in creating a culture for reading in the community. Participants explore gender issues related to reading, diversifying reading choices, building worldmindedness into children’s reading. Using social media to promote and encourage reading as well as critically examining online reading issues are also addressed.

ED 6740 COLLECTIONS MANAGEMENT
This course examines the principles and methods of establishing, managing and sustaining school and community library collections including the formulation of selection/ circulation policies and criteria for evaluating/critiquing print, non-print and digital materials. Issues of censorship, influences of digital media and copyright are included as well as a critical examination of the relationship of the publishing industry to collection development and knowledge sharing.

ED 6750 INQUIRY PROJECTS IN SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY LIBRARIES
This is an action research, project-based course. Participants will identify an issue that pertains to learning in contemporary school and community libraries and will design a research project employing the principles of action research. Working from a solid theoretical framework, participants apply the inquiry process to explore critical questions in their practice.

ED 6910 DIRECTED STUDIES
In this course, individual students pursue a special topic or issue in education. Before approval is granted, each student must prepare a detailed outline of the contents of the course, and obtain the consent of a faculty member to supervise the work.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the Dean and Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies, or permission of the instructor
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6920 HIGHER EDUCATION TEACHING
This course introduces the pedagogies, practices, and instructional alternatives that foster acquisition of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes critical to successful teaching at the post­secondary level. It examines topics such as the teaching learning process, instructional and curriculum design, addressing student needs, and learning characteristics. Note: This course is graded pass-fail.
Cross-listing: None required, but the course could be cross-listed with various graduate programs across the UPEI campus.
PREREQUISITES and/or CO­REQUISITES: The minimum standard for admission would be the successful completion of an undergraduate degree, as per the admission requirements for graduate programs at UPEI.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6950 GRADUATE SEMINAR
In this course, students attend and present seminars on topics in their discipline, are evaluated on their seminars, and provide constructive criticism to others giving seminars in the course.
CO- or PREREQUISITE: Education 6110, or permission of the Graduate Studies Coordinator
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ED 6990 THESIS
Each student in the Master of Education program is required, under the supervision of a Faculty Advisor and Thesis Committee, to write a thesis based on research into an approved topic. It must demonstrate the candidate’s ability to conduct original independent work, and include a critical evaluation of the principal works published on the subject of the thesis. It should make an original contribution to the body of knowledge in that field of study.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the MEd program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 12 upon completion of thesis

Master of Arts (MA)

A) PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

Students enrolled in the graduate program are required to choose a thesis-based option or a course-based option. Both MA degree options require the demonstration of a reasonable mastery of a concentrated field of study, as attested by achieving a satisfactory standing in the minimum number of graduate courses required by the respective Faculty, and a thesis based upon the research or the successful completion of the courses depending on the program option chosen.

Graduate students will register in the interdisciplinary MA program in Island Studies, under the Dean of Arts. Each student’s program of study will be designed in consultation with the Program Administrator and student’s Supervisor (for the thesis option) or Student Coordinator (for the course-based option).

There will be considerable interaction and co-operation among the departments to provide courses and research facilities to meet the needs of individual students and their research.

In addition to the “General Regulations for Graduate Programs,” described above, the following regulations apply specifically to the Master’s degree:

Residency Requirements

Normally, at least two semesters of full-time study in residence at the University must be devoted to the thesis-based Master’s program if the student is admitted as a regular student. Upon completion of the residency requirement, the student is then eligible to become a candidate for the MA degree. Normally, the thesis must be formally submitted or the program be otherwise complete within 48 months of the completion of the residency requirement. Departure from these normal requirements requires approval from the Graduate Studies Committee.

For the course-based Master’s program, students would be expected to study at the University for two summer sessions, one at the beginning of the program and the second at the end of the second year of the program.

Program Transfer Options

Students initially registered in either the thesis or course-based program options may transfer between programs. Those initially in the thesis option would be required to complete all of the requirements of the course-based program, including the two experiential courses, IST 6200 Communications Management and Island Issues and the three focus area required courses. Those students initially in the course-based program may apply to transfer to the thesis-based option after completing four Island Studies courses including IST 6010 and IST 6040. All other Island Studies courses are transferable except for the two practical experience courses (IST 6210 and IST 6220). An application consisting of a thesis proposal, a transcript of grades and written agreement from a proposed supervisor must be submitted to the program Admissions Committee for approval.

THESIS-BASED OPTION
B) COURSES

Prescribed Studies

The proportion of weight attached to the research and thesis may vary, even within a department. Accordingly, the number of courses and/or general examinations may correspondingly vary. In no case, however, will the minimum requirements be less than those outlined in the following two paragraphs. For graduate credit, the courses selected must be acceptable to the Department and the Graduate Studies Committee. The candidate must maintain an average grade of at least a “B” standing (see Grades in General Regulations section) in the substantive courses outlined below in order to maintain registration in the program.

In the Faculty of Arts, students are required to take a minimum of three courses at the graduate level totalling a minimum of 9 credit hours. Students may take only two Directed Studies courses for credit. Students lacking an Honours degree or background in one or more areas may, at the discretion of the Supervisory Committee, be required to take the appropriate undergraduate level course(s).

For the MA in Island Studies, six courses in addition to the thesis are required owing to the interdisciplinary nature of the program.

  • Compulsory Courses (2 required courses)
  • Island Studies 6010 Themes and Perspectives in Island Studies
  • Island Studies 6040 Research Methods and Design for Island Studies

Elective Courses

In addition to these prescribed studies, the candidate may undertake to achieve satisfactory standings in courses supportive of the special discipline. These courses may be at either the undergraduate or the graduate level.

When a student is required to register in a seminar or colloquium course in more than one semester, the record will show a grade or a designation of “In Progress” for semesters prior to completion of the course and “Pass” or “Fail” for the final semester. With the consent of the Supervisory Committee, and of the instructor and the Department Chair concerned (or the Dean of Arts in the case of the MA in Island Studies), a student may register for, and audit, all or part of a course. It is understood that the student will attend lectures as prescribed, but will not write any examination or receive any grade. Such a course may be recorded as an additional course, identified by AUD.

Elective Courses (4 courses required)
Island Studies 6090 Migration and Movement Among Small Islands
Island Studies 6110 Strategies for Economic Development for Small Islands
Island Studies 6120 International Relations of Small Island States
Island Studies 6130 Political Ecology of Small Islands
Island Studies 6140 Islandness: Culture, Change, and Identity on Small Islands
Island Studies 6150 Public Policy in Small Islands
Island Studies 6160 Directed Studies
Island Studies 6170 Special Topics
Island Studies 6180 Colonial and Postcolonial Discourse Theories: An Introduction
Island Studies 6190 Environmental Governance
Island Studies 6200 Communications Management and Island Issues
Island Studies 6230 Islands and Tourism
Island Studies 6240 Approaches to the Management of Island Tourism
Island Studies 6250 Sustainability for Small Islands
Island Studies 6260 Blue/Green Development Strategies for Small Islands
Island Studies 6270 Subnational Island Jurisdictions

C) THE THESIS

Research

Normally, the equivalent of at least two full-time semesters must be devoted to research in fulfilment of the thesis requirement. Summers during which research work is actively conducted may be counted as research semester equivalents, even though courses would not normally be offered at that time. In order to avoid undue prolongation of the time required to complete the degree, the research topic should be identified early and approved by the Supervisory Committee. Research involving the use of animals must follow the Guidelines of the Canadian Council on Animal Care. Research involving human participants must adhere to the Tri-Council policy on research ethics and be approved by the University’s Research Ethics Board.

Thesis

Each candidate for the degree of Master of Arts is required to submit a thesis based upon the research conducted under supervision as described above. The thesis must demonstrate the candidate’s capacity for original and independent work, and should include a critical evaluation of work which has previously been done in the field of his or her research. The thesis should emphasize any new conclusions which may be drawn from the candidate’s own research.

General specifications as to paper, format, order, and binding are available from the Office of the Program Administrator.

Procedures

The thesis may be handed in at any time of the year, but candidates must bear in mind the desirability of having the final examination as much in advance of the deadline date for thesis submission as possible. Candidates are advised to inform themselves of the deadlines schedule, a copy of which may be obtained in the Office of the Program Administrator. It is desirable that each candidate initiate discussion about examination dates with the Supervisor early in the final semester.

The candidate should keep in close touch with the Supervisor and the Supervisory Committee throughout the preparation of the thesis. The final draft of the thesis, after it has been reviewed by all members of the Supervisory Committee, is sent when ready for examination to the members of the Master’s Examination Committee (see below).

Following the Master’s Examination, the candidate, if successful, arranges for the preparation of the thesis in final form, and for its submission to the Program Administrator (see below). The thesis in final form must include any minor corrections or revisions indicated during the Examination. Approval of the thesis takes the form of a Certificate of Approval, signed by the Examination Committee.

The Master’s Examination

The final oral examination, devoted chiefly to the defence of the thesis, is a departmental examination identified as the Master’s Examination and carried out by the Master’s Examination Committee.

In the Faculty of Arts, the Master’s Examination Committee normally consists of three members of the Supervisory Committee, including the Supervisor of the candidate’s research, who will chair the Master’s Examination Committee on behalf of the Dean of Arts. The Examination Committee also includes an External Examiner from another university or research organization who has expertise in the student’s field of research and is recommended for approval by the Supervisor or Supervisory Committee to the Coordinator and Dean.

The Department Chair (or the Dean of Arts, in the case of the MA in Island Studies) selects the Examination Committee at the request of the Supervisor and is responsible for notifying the Program Administrator of its composition. The Examination is normally open to the public; however, members of the audience may question the candidate only upon invitation of the Chair of the Committee. The Examination is passed and the thesis approved in principle if there is no more than one negative vote, an abstention being regarded as a negative vote. The report, from the Department Chair (or the Dean of Arts, in the case of the MA in Island Studies) to the Program Administrator, records the result as “unsatisfactory,” or “satisfactory”. If the result is “unsatisfactory,” the candidate may be given the opportunity by the Master’s Examination Committee of a second attempt. A second “unsatisfactory” result will terminate candidacy at this university.

COURSE-BASED OPTION

Students enrolled in this option will register in one of three focus areas: Island Tourism, Sustainable Island Communities or International Relations and Island Public Policy. Students in all focus areas will complete eight compulsory courses and two elective courses, as described below.

Compulsory Courses for all Focus Areas (5 required courses)
Island Studies 6010 Themes and Perspectives in Island Studies
Island Studies 6040 Research Methods and Design for Island Studies
Island Studies 6200 Communications Management and Island Issues
Island Studies 6210 Theory and Practice of Island Research I
Island Studies 6220 Theory and Practice of Island Research II

Additional Compulsory Courses in Island Tourism Focus Area (3 required courses)
Island Studies 6110 Strategies for Economic Development for Small Islands
Island Studies 6230 Islands and Tourism
Island Studies 6240 Approaches to the Management of Island Tourism

Additional Compulsory Courses in Sustainable Island Communities Focus Area (3 required courses)
Island Studies 6130 Political Ecology of Small Islands
Island Studies 6250 Sustainability for Small Islands
Island Studies 6260 Blue/Green Development Strategies for Small Islands

Additional Compulsory Courses in International Relations and Island Public Policy Focus Area (3 required courses)
Island Studies 6120 International Relations of Small Island States
Island Studies 6150 Public Policy in Small Islands
Island Studies 6270 Subnational Island Jurisdictions

Elective Courses for all Focus Areas (2 courses required)
Island Studies 6090 Migration and Movement Among Small Islands
Island Studies 6140 Islandness: Culture, Change, and Identity on Small Islands
Island Studies 6180 Colonial and Postcolonial Discourse Theories: An Introduction
Island Studies 6190 Environmental Governance

In addition to these Island Studies elective courses, and in order to satisfy their elective requirements, students in each of the focus areas may take any of the compulsory courses in the other two focus areas. All compulsory and most elective courses in the course-based program except for IST 6040 and IST 6200 will be delivered online. Not all courses identified as electives within the course-based option will be provided via online delivery. Check with the Program Coordinator for details.

D) GRADUATE COURSES

IST 6010 THEMES AND PERSPECTIVES IN ISLAND STUDIES
This course explores contemporary and historical research questions and issues central to the interdisciplinary and comparative study of small islands and archipelagos. Topics include islands’ identity, characteristics, challenges, opportunities, cultures, geography, economics, history, environmental concerns, and governance systems.
SEMESTER-HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
HOURS PER WEEK: 3
LECTURE: 2
SEMINAR: 1

IST 6040 RESEARCH METHODS AND DESIGN FOR ISLAND STUDIES
Introduction to research methods and research design as they pertain to study of small islands. The non-availability of island-specific data in non-island jurisdictions and researchers’ perspectives and points of view will be considered.
PREREQUISITES: Admission into a UPEI graduate program or eligibility for graduate studies
SEMESTER-HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
HOURS PER WEEK: 3
LECTURE: 2
SEMINAR: 1

IST 6090 MIGRATION AND MOVEMENT AMONG SMALL ISLANDS
This course examines the diverse issues arising from migration and movement among and within small islands. Topics will include the creation of small-island societies through successive and often competing waves of colonization by migrants, adventurers, and/or conquerors, as well as the complex two-way traffic that generally characterizes the subsequent development of island societies. Case studies of specific small islands, as well as comparative assessment of different small-island cases, provide opportunities to investigate the themes discussed in a concrete and practical manner.
PREREQUISITE: Admission into a UPEI graduate program or eligibility for graduate studies
SEMESTER-HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
HOURS PER WEEK: 3
LECTURE: 2
SEMINAR: 1

IST 6110 STRATEGIES FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FOR SMALL ISLANDS
Using case studies, this course introduces the comparative study of economic development strategies applicable to small- island economics.
PREREQUISITES: Admission into a UPEI graduate program or eligibility for graduate studies
SEMESTER-HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
HOURS PER WEEK: 3
LECTURE: 2
SEMINAR: 1

IST 6120 THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF SMALL ISLAND STATES
Small-island states share a wide range of issues that are either exclusive to small islands or of particular salience for these island states. This course explores in-depth the international agenda for small-island states, the channels and resources involved in their international relations, and the attention and commitment of metropolitan states and international organizations.
PREREQUISITE: Admission into a UPEI graduate program or eligibility for graduate studies
SEMESTER-HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
HOURS PER WEEK: 3
LECTURE: 2
SEMINAR: 1

IST 6130 THE POLITICAL ECOLOGY OF SMALL ISLANDS
This course examines the intersections among politics, policy, and island environments. The tension between external economic pressures and trans-jurisdictional environmental protection mechanisms, with particular emphasis on topics such as global warming, fishing stocks, and biodiversity, is examined. Other factors including cultural and political forces that encourage development despite environmental risks also are explored.
PREREQUISITE: Admission into a UPEI graduate program or eligibility for graduate studies
SEMESTER-HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
HOURS PER WEEK: 3
LECTURE: 2
SEMINAR: 1

IST 6140 ISLANDNESS: CULTURE, CHANGE, AND IDENTITY ON SMALL ISLANDS
In this course students investigate the effects of insularity on small-island populations. The relationship between the population’s identity (culture, ethnicity, self-confidence) and its economic and political choices is examined. Students examine history, folklore, art, literature, anthropology, economics, and political theories in the context of “islandness.”
PREREQUISITE: Admission into a UPEI graduate program, or eligibility for graduate studies
SEMESTER-HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 2
SEMINAR: 1

IST 6150 PUBLIC POLICY IN SMALL ISLANDS
This course examines the determinants or causes of public policy in small-island jurisdictions. Students familiarize themselves with various models for understanding the causes of public policy and with selected frameworks for comparing policy across jurisdictions.
PREREQUISITE: Admission into a UPEI graduate program, or eligibility for graduate studies
SEMESTER-HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
HOURS PER WEEK: 3
LECTURE: 2
SEMINAR: 1

IST 6160 DIRECTED STUDIES
Under the supervision of a faculty member, a graduate student independently pursues an area of interest in-depth. The course includes a thorough literature review of the topic and directed research.
NOTE: Students are permitted to take no more than two Directed Studies courses towards the Master of Arts in Island Studies.
PREREQUISITE: Admission into a UPEI graduate program, or eligibility for graduate studies
SEMESTER-HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

IST 6170 SPECIAL TOPICS
Creation of a course code for special topics offered by Master of Arts.

IST 6180 COLONIAL AND POSTCOLONIAL DISCOURSE THEORIES: AN INTRODUCTION
Students will be introduced to the basic elements of colonial and postcolonial discourse analysis, an interdisciplinary field of study. Some of the prominent practitioners and debates in the field will be considered, as well as some of the cultural, historical, and political reasons for its emergence. A particular emphasis will be placed on colonialism and postcolonialism in island contexts.
PREREQUISITE: Admission into a UPEI graduate program, or eligibility for graduate studies
SEMESTER HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
LECTURE: 2
SEMINAR: 1

IST 6190 ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE
This course focuses on developing an understanding of principles, practices and emerging issues relating to environmental governance. An emphasis is placed on exploring the roles of governments, markets and collective action in environmental policy and management.  Examples of governance arrangements are drawn from different parts of the world and different ecological contexts, including the uniqueness of
island contexts.
Cross-listed with Environmental Studies 4110.
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

IST 6200 COMMUNICATIONS MANAGEMENT AND ISLAND ISSUES
This course examines the concepts, principles and application of interpersonal and small group communications, public relations, strategic planning, law, leadership and ethics and applies them to island organizations and governments.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

IST 6210 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ISLAND RESEARCH I
This course provides students with an opportunity to develop, integrate and apply their knowledge of island issues and theory in a specific focus area. Students will be involved in practical experiences with private, public or non-governmental organizations that deal with island issues. In-class discussions and discussion forums among students will assist students in developing an interdisciplinary and integrated approach to analysing these experiences.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

IST 6220 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ISLAND RESEARCH II
This course provides students with an opportunity to develop, integrate and apply their knowledge of island issues and theory in a specific focus area that is developed collaboratively with private, public or non-governmental organizations. In-class discussions and discussion forums build on the knowledge gained earlier in the program, including in the introductory experiential course (IST 6210).
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

IST 6230 ISLANDS AND TOURISM
This course provides students with an interdisciplinary analysis of the nature of island tourism. It covers the motivations and marketing of island tourism, the development opportunities, impacts and challenges, mass tourism versus niche tourism and the application to different island contexts, including warm-water versus cold-water locations.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

IST 6240 APPROACHES TO THE MANAGEMENT OF ISLAND TOURISM
This course explores the relationship between theory and practice in island tourism operations and tourism destinations. It will also examine the various ways that tourism impacts island communities throughout the world. The primary focus is on policies, designs, and strategies to mitigate the negative impacts and help tourism to become a sustainable and positive aspect of community development. Environmental, economic, cultural and social aspects of tourism will be considered.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

IST 6250 SUSTAINABILITY FOR SMALL ISLANDS
This course explores the concept of sustainability as it has been applied to small islands of the world. It will show how the concepts of vulnerability and resilience have been applied to better understand development and underdevelopment taking place on islands from a holistic perspective. It also examines island sustainability from an indigenous and islander perspective versus an ‘outsider’ perspective.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

IST 6260 BLUE/GREEN DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES FOR SMALL ISLANDS
Blue-green development is an approach that emphasizes the integration of marine and land-based resources and sectors, sustainable production and consumption, indigenous perspectives, diversification, clean technology, renewable energy and island entrepreneurship. This course examines and critiques this framework as a viable development path for small islands.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

IST 6270 SUBNATIONAL ISLAND JURISDICTIONS
Subnational island jurisdictions (or SNIJs) are political island entities that are in a semi-autonomous relationship with other jurisdictions. It includes provinces, states, and overseas territories. This course describes the nature and evolution of SNIJs and explains their resilience in a post-colonial world.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

IST 6990 THESIS
These topics will ordinarily require framing in a regional and comparative island studies context, with students then focusing on an issue or issues as it impacts on: one particular island; two or more islands; or the relationship between island and mainland. Students will be required to present a thesis proposal and their thesis results in a seminar format prior to their oral examination.
PREREQUISITE: Successful completion of Island Studies 6010, 6040, and one other graduate level 3 credit-hour course that is part of their program of studies.

Master of Applied Health Services Research (MAHSR)

This program is intended for students who are interested in pursuing a career in health research. The Master’s Degree in Health Services Research is a collaborative venture of Memorial University of Newfoundland, the University of New Brunswick, St. Mary’s University, and the University of Prince Edward Island, and is coordinated through the Atlantic Research Training Centre (ARTC). The degree program provides knowledge and skills necessary to tackle complex health policy issues and contribute to the future of health services in Atlantic Canada.

A) PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

Students complete three compulsory courses and attend three themed workshops, three elective courses, and a thesis.

Compulsory Courses
AHS 6003 – Research & Evaluation Design and Methods
AHS 6004 – Determinants of Health: Healthy Public Policy
AHS 6008 – Advanced Qualitative Methods OR AHS 6009 – Advanced Quantitative Methods
Three themed workshops (scheduled throughout the degree program)

Elective Courses
AHS 6001 – Canadian Health System
AHS 6002 – Ethical Foundations of Applied Health Research
AHS 6005 – Policy and Decision Making
AHS 6007 – Knowledge Transfer and Research Uptake
AHS 6110 – Directed Studies
AHS 6120 – Work Integrated Learning

Thesis
AHS 6010 – Thesis

Review of Progress

At the end of each semester, the academic record and progress of each student will be reviewed by the Science Graduate Studies Coordinator. The candidate must maintain a minimum GPA of 3.0 or an average of 75% or higher in order to maintain registration in the program.

B) GRADES SCHEDULE

In the courses which comprise a part of the student’s program, standings will be reported according to the following schedule of grades:

•First class standing: 80 per cent and higher

•Second class standing: 70 to 79.9 per cent inclusive

•Pass standing: 60 to 69.9 per cent inclusive

•F: a graduate student who receives a grade of less than 60 per cent in any course (graduate or undergraduate, prescribed or additional) is deemed to have failed the course.

•INC: students who fail to complete all components of a course, such as assignments, examinations and laboratories, due to circumstances beyond their control (such as illness) may, with the permission of the Professor, Chair and Dean, be granted an amount of time deemed reasonable for the completion of said components. If a student does not complete all the components of a course by the agreed-upon date, normally a grade of F shall replace INC on the transcript. Nevertheless, in cases where the component left incomplete was not a requirement for passing the course and where the student already has earned a passing grade without completing the component, the passing grade shall be submitted and shall replace INC on the transcript.

•AUD: an “audited” course (additional courses only)

•DISC: discontinued with permission

C) THE THESIS

Research

Normally, the equivalent of 12 months of continuous study must be devoted to research in fulfilment of the thesis requirement. In order to complete the degree within a reasonable time frame, the research topic should be identified and approved by the Supervisory Committee by the second semester of the students’ program. Research involving human subjects must be approved by the University’s Research Ethics Board.

Students will prepare a thesis proposal that outlines the particular area to be investigated. Normally this will happen during the first year of the program. An academic defence is required and, in addition, students will make a public presentation of their thesis research.

Supervisory Committee

The supervisory committee is composed of the supervisor (or co-supervisors) who are graduate faculty, and at least two other graduate faculty members. All members of the supervisory committee are expected to participate actively in the student program.

Thesis

Each candidate for the degree of Master of Applied Health Services Research is required to submit a thesis based upon research conducted under supervision as described in this section of the calendar. The thesis must demonstrate the student’s mastery of skills and show potential for original and independent research.

General specifications as to paper, format, order, and binding are available from the Science Graduate Studies Coordinator.

The student should consult frequently with the Supervisor and the Supervisory Committee when preparing the thesis. The final draft of the thesis, after it has been approved by all members of the Supervisory Committee, is sent for examination to the members of the Master’s Examination Committee (see below).

The Master’s Examination

The final oral examination, devoted chiefly to the defence of the thesis, is an examination identified as the Master’s Examination and carried out by the Master’s Examination Committee.

The Science Graduate Coordinator selects the Examination Committee at the request of the Supervisor. The Examination is normally open to the public; however, members of the audience may only question the candidate upon invitation of the Chair of the Committee.

The Examination is passed and the thesis approved if there is no more than one negative vote, an abstention being regarded as a negative vote. The Science Graduate Studies Coordinator records the result as “unsatisfactory” or “satisfactory.” If the result is “unsatisfactory,” the candidate may be given the opportunity by the Master’s Examination Committee of a second attempt. A second “unsatisfactory” result will terminate candidacy at this university.

The Master’s Examination Committee normally consists of five members as follows:

•Three members of the Supervisory Committee, including the Supervisor of the candidate’s research;

•One member of the area of specialization but from a department other than that of the student’s supervisor. This external examiner may be from the University of Prince Edward Island, or from another University or Research Institute, as is deemed appropriate;

•The Coordinator of Graduate Studies (or designate), who will Chair the Master’s Examination Committee.

Submission of Thesis

Following the Master’s Examination, the candidate, if successful, arranges for the preparation of the thesis in final form, and for its submission to the Science Graduate Studies Coordinator. The thesis in final form must include any corrections or revisions indicated during the Examination. Approval of the thesis takes the form of a Certificate of Approval, signed by the Examination Committee. The Graduate Studies Coordinator for Science must inform in writing the Registrar’s Office when the student has fulfilled all requirements of the degree.

Copyright Provision

Copies of the thesis shall have on the title page the words, “In partial fulfilment of requirements for the degree of Master of Applied Health Services Research.” The international copyright notice, which consists of three elements in the same line – the letter “C” enclosed in a circle; the name of the copyright owner (the student); and the year – should appear as a bottom line on the title page of the thesis.

Retention/Maintenance of Records

In the interests of good scholarly practice and in order to substantiate claims of intellectual property, graduate students should keep complete, dated records of their research. These records may be in the form of bound notebooks, log books, or other documentation, as appropriate to the discipline. Students should also retain copies of significant drafts and notes, and of all material submitted for evaluation, presentation, publication, or by the way of informal contribution to collaborative research projects. They must also ensure that raw data and other research results should remain accessible at all times to all other members of any collaborative research activity.

Unacceptable Thesis

If a candidate is unable to prepare an acceptable thesis, the Supervisory Committee will report this to the Science Graduate Coordinator (sending to the student a copy of the report).

Transcripts of Records

Official transcripts of the student’s academic record are available through the Registrar’s Office. Transcripts will be sent to other universities, to prospective employers, or to others outside the University only upon formal request by the student.

D) GRADUATE COURSES

AHS 6001 (formerly 6010) CANADIAN HEALTH SYSTEM
This course proposes to give an overview of the history of the Canadian Health System and its current organization, as well as an overview of other international health system models. The key concepts that will be explored in the Canadian Health System include legislation, institutions, funding structures, human resources, and guiding values. Other issues examined will be the factors affecting health services utilization, the measurement of health outcomes and their use for accountability, and a review of health information systems in Canada and the structures and instruments within them. Finally, current issues and trends relating to the Canadian Health Care system will be reviewed.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

AHS 6002 (formerly 6020) ETHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF APPLIED HEALTH RESEARCH
This course will acquaint students with the ethical basis of health research, as well as the substantive issues that arise at the macro, meso, and micro levels in the design and conduct of research. A variety of approaches to ethical decision- making will be surveyed, with particular attention given to how various approaches might apply in the context of Atlantic Canada. Standard topics will be explored in this course, such as informed consent, privacy and confidentiality of health information, and conflicts of interest. Special attention will be given to issues of rural/urban split, respect for the integrity of communities, and the potential abuse of expert or professional authority.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

AHS 6003 (formerly 6030) RESEARCH & EVALUATION DESIGN AND METHODS
In this course, students will become familiar with the research process, with the basic aim of developing skills to critically evaluate the work of others and to understand possible approaches in the design of their own research projects. The initial emphasis in the course will be on formulating research questions and determining strategies that may be used to address a particular research theme. As the course unfolds, the approach will switch to understanding how various qualitative and quantitative research techniques may be used to address research questions that the students have posed.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

AHS 6004 (formerly 6050) DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH: HEALTHY PUBLIC POLICY
This course will explore the development of the philosophy of the determinants of health, and identify the determinants of health and their relationship with health status. As the course unfolds, students will gain an understanding of the philosophical underpinnings, as well as understanding their inter-relationships. An understanding of the complexity of developing healthy public policy that addresses multiple determinants of health will be developed by students, as well as the consideration of the implications of policy from the perspective of the determinants of health.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

AHS 6005 (formerly 6040) POLICY AND DECISION-MAKING
In this course, students will explore the process of how Canadian Health Policy is developed, implemented, and evaluated. This course will also assist in building skills in the areas of research approach, critical appraisal, policy synthesis, and briefing notes. The course will follow a case-based approach to understand the implications of political, social, ethical, and economic policy.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

AHS 6007 (formerly 6070) KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER AND RESEARCH UPTAKE
This course will explore the facilitators and barriers of using evidence in decision-making, as well as developing the students’ understanding of the conceptual, philosophical, and theoretical underpinnings of knowledge transfer and research uptake. Students will also learn how to create ongoing/sustainable linkages with decision-makers and how to share research findings with academic and non-academic audiences. The course strengthens the program by providing students with skills to interact with stakeholders and facilitate the use of evidence in decision-making. Topics explored include Evidence-Based Decision-Making—barriers and facilitators, and why evidence is not used in decision-making. The course will look at how to encourage decision-makers to use research evidence through behavioural change, social marketing, and sustainable linkages.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

AHS 6008 (formerly 6080) ADVANCED QUALITATIVE METHODS
In this course, students will gain an understanding of the use of qualitative research methods in applied health research. Students’ skills will be developed in the analysis of qualitative data, grant-proposal writing using qualitative data, and the critique of qualitative research. Topics explored include issues in qualitative approaches such as subjects/participants, ethical issues, representativeness, data trustworthiness, bias/perspective, researcher as an instrument, the designing of an analysis template, concurrent/non-current, and ethnography. Other topics explored include theoretical approaches to analysis, such as conflict analysis, feminist, deconstructionist, thematic analysis, participatory action research, grounded theory, and case studies.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

AHS 6009 (formerly 6090) ADVANCED QUANTITATIVE METHODS
This course will expose students to a variety of more advanced quantitative and statistical approaches to research methodology. The two main purposes of the course are to provide students with the tools to conduct advanced quantitative empirical research, and to further develop their ability to critically evaluate the work of others. Students will learn to examine issues and develop research strategies to begin to identify and answer important topics that need to be researched, and students will design a realistic appraisal of what can and cannot be achieved, given resource constraints.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

AHS 6010 (formerly 6100) THESIS
Each student in the Master of Applied Health Services Research program is required, under the supervision of a Faculty Advisor and Supervisory Committee, to write a thesis based on research into an approved topic. It must demonstrate the candidate’s ability to conduct original independent work, and include a critical evaluation of the principal works published on the subject of the thesis. It should make an original contribution to the body of knowledge in that field of study.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the Master of Applied Health Services Research program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

AHS 6110 DIRECTED STUDIES
Students independently pursue an area of interest under the supervision of a faculty member. This study can include an extensive review of literature, the collection of new data, and/or analysis of existing data. Expected outcomes include a written report and seminar in the subject area. Topics must not be a part of the student’s thesis research although they may be in a complementary area.

AHS 6120 WORK INTEGRATED LEARNING
Students may undertake a four-month research residency with a decision-making organization. The residency is designed to provide hands-on research and decision-making experience, and to develop an understanding of how knowledge is transferred between the academic community and decision-makers.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to the Master of Applied Health Services Research program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

Executive Master of Business Administration (EMBA)

Based on executive education models, this MBA program offers students a unique and valuable opportunity to advance their education while continuing to work. Specialized streams of study are available in “Biotechnology Management and Entrepreneurship” and “Innovative Management”. These will provide students with the theory, skills, experiential learning and research opportunities to advance their knowledge and enhance their success in these flourishing fields. Dedicated faculty, peer-to-peer learning, an integrated program approach, and an emphasis on developing global perspectives ensure that graduates are well prepared for the unique challenges of leading and innovating in an ever-changing, international business environment. The degree conferred upon successful completion of the program is a Master of Business Administration (MBA).

Specialization in Biotechnology Management and Entrepreneurship

In this specialization stream, students gain a valuable combination of knowledge and skills in the business of science. The program will focus on the issues of commercialization, as well as the ethical and regulatory issues that face the biotechnology industry. Graduates of this specialization stream will be well equipped to develop and manage new ventures and small businesses or to work in the public and private sectors in the business of biotechnology/science fields.

Specialization in Innovative Management

The Innovative Management stream is designed to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to effectively manage within and for an innovative environment. Courses integrate the concepts of creativity and entrepreneurial thinking as well as real world learning and management skills such as leadership and teamwork. Global content ensures graduates have a well- developed perspective on worldly issues and decision-making. This program fits those who are interested in business from new perspectives.

A) STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAM

The Executive MBA program is designed for working people. The program structure is flexible to fit students’ needs as much as possible. For example, classes are held every other week on Fridays and Saturdays to accommodate working students. Students normally enrol in four courses per semester and form small, self-managed teams to work on projects, thus enabling them to learn from each others’ backgrounds and experiences.

The first year of studies focuses on enhancing managerial skills and understanding functional business topics. Students are able to take four courses in each of the fall and winter semesters.

The second year of studies focuses on the development and application of more strategic perspectives and application within a dynamic global business environment. In year two, students are able to take four courses in the fall semester. The program finishes with the completion of BUS-8010.

B) PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

Students enrolled in the Executive MBA program are required to complete a total of 42 credit hours (14 courses) comprised of required courses, specialization courses, and a signature project. Students have the opportunity to complete the MBA program in twenty months. They must complete all required courses within six years of being admitted to the program.

C) GRADUATE COURSES

Students in both specialization streams must complete 24 credit hours of required core courses and a signature project equivalent to 6 credit hours. The required core courses for both streams are as follows:

Business 6010 – Management of People and Organizations
Business 6020 – Financial and Managerial Accounting
Business 6030 – Marketing Management
Business 6040 – Operations Management
Business 6050 – Corporate Finance
Business 6070 – Strategic Management
Business 6080 – Research Methods for Evidence-Based Practice
Business 6090 – Business Communication
Business 8010 – Business Research in Practice

Specialization Courses

Students are required to take 12 credit hours (4 courses) in one of the specializations. These four courses will normally include two required courses plus two elective courses in the chosen area of specialization. Students, however, will have the option to take one of the elective courses in the other specialization. Not all elective courses will be offered each semester. Electives may include Special Topics or Directed Studies courses.

Biotechnology Management and Entrepreneurship Courses
Business 7010 – Biotechnology Management and Development (required)
Business 7020 – Commercialization of Biotechnology and Innovations (required)
Business 7030 – Ethics and Governance in Biotechnology Management
Business 7040 – International Relations, Laws, and Policies of Biotechnology
Business 7050 – Growth Strategies
Business 7060 – Venture Financing Strategies
Business 7070 – Managing Biotechnology Innovation

Innovative Management Courses
Business 7200 – Innovation and Entrepreneurship (required)
Business 7210 – Innovative Culture and Leadership (required)
Business 7220 – Managing Customer Value
Business 7230 – Creativity and Innovation for Change Management
Business 7240 – Governance, Leadership, and Professional Development
Business 7250 – Management and Government Perspectives
Business 7260 – Strategy and Management Consulting
Business 7270 – Negotiation and Conflict Management
Business 7280 – International Business

Special Topics Course
Business 7850 – Special Topics in Business

Directed Studies Course
Business 7860 – Directed Studies

BUS 6010 MANAGEMENT OF PEOPLE & ORGANIZATIONS
This course considers concepts, knowledge, and skills related to the behaviour and management of people in organizations. Human resource management entails thinking systematically and strategically, essential for achieving meaningful outcomes through others. Included are topics such as leadership, motivation, organizational structure, recruitment, selection, reward systems, performance management, training and development, employee commitment and retention, workforce diversity, and managing people across borders and cultures.

BUS 6020 FINANCIAL AND MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING
In this course students learn to become proficient at understanding and interpreting financial statements, assessing them for decision-making purposes and supporting value- creating organizational strategies, operational tactics, and performance measurement schemes. The course employs international standards and addresses how accounting is used in decision-making. Tools for learning include guest speakers, case studies, and projects.

BUS 6030 MARKETING MANAGEMENT
This course is designed to provide students with an introduction to the essentials of marketing practice. Students work together to apply principles and techniques for assessing changing consumer wants in an environment driven by globalization and evolving technological change. Emphasis is placed on providing managers with the tools necessary to make timely, strategic marketing decisions from the perspective of targeted consumer wants.

BUS 6040 OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
This course focuses on concepts and techniques for the design, planning, control, and improvement of manufacturing and service processes. These concepts and techniques pertain to a range of applications in the private and public sectors. Topics include quantitative decision making; process mapping flows of labour, material, capital, and value; supply chain coordination; inventory management; risk mitigation; quality management; process design; and revenue management. Students will complete problem solving and case applications.

BUS 6050 CORPORATE FINANCE
This course is designed to provide students with a broad overview of corporate finance and financial markets.  The focus is on the conceptual and analytical techniques necessary for making financial decisions. The information collection, problem solving, and decision-making skills inherent in the finance function are stressed.  Key concepts covered include the relevance of financial markets to the firm, understanding the relationship between risk and return and its importance in all financial decisions, and learning how financial and real assets are valued and the impact on a company.
PREREQUISITE:  Business 6020

BUS 6070 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT
This course looks at the development and implementation of management strategies to create a sustainable advantage in new ventures and entrepreneurial activities in the fast-changing global economy. Utilizing a variety of pedagogic approaches, the course may include topics such as venture concepts, product and market development, intellectual property strategies, pipeline and portfolio management, licensing, alliances, mergers and acquisitions, and international expansion strategies.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6010 and 6020

BUS 6080 RESEARCH METHODS FOR EVIDENCE-BASED PRACTICE
This course looks at research as a systematic, objective, and creative process and provides students with a foundation for practicing evidence-based management. Through an introductory yet thorough overview of research methodology, this course enables and encourages students to consider ways managers can use research to support decision-making and actions. Students learn how to locate and evaluate existing knowledge and how to conduct (or participate in) original research.

BUS 6090
 BUSINESS COMMUNICATION
This course is designed to help students hone their oral and written communication skills. Students will learn how to deliver professional, engaging, and persuasive public presentations and written work. The course will also teach effective communication within meetings and team settings. In addition, the course will review the principles of academic integrity.
3 hours credit

BUS 7010 BIOTECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT (required)
This course provides an overview of management in the biotech/sciences fields. It develops a framework for understanding and analyzing issues in the strategic management of technology and innovation in the context of taking a scientifically feasible idea and examining whether or not it is commercially viable. It evaluates opportunities and challenges in the management of growth in entrepreneurial settings and looks at funding sources from venture capital, business angels, investment banking, and commercial banking sources, and considers the potential global impact of biotechnology research, regulatory requirements, and knowledge management.

BUS 7020 COMMERCIALIZATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATIONS (required)
This course examines the theory and practice of commercializing innovation through the launching of new business ventures in the biotechnology industry. It looks at the determination of the value of an innovation; if, when, and how to commercialize an innovation; the research, development, preparation, and presentation of a business plan; how to manage cross-disciplinary teams of scientists, engineers, lawyers, and MBAs; and the strategic alliances and partnerships that are critical to a successful biotech business.

BUS 7030 ETHICS AND GOVERNANCE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT
This course provides a foundation for the ethical and social problems involved in running today’s biotechnology companies which may not have the advantages of deep cumulative knowledge and experienced long-term leadership. The course addresses major transitions in technology, markets, and government policy in industries such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, information technology, energy, and communications. It examines research collaborations between university and industry, ethical drug advertising, rules of competition, and incorporating ethics into the fabric of business decision-making. Classes feature guest speakers, venture capitalists, business executives, regulators, and others who can bring their insights and expertise to the issues.

BUS 7040 INTERNATIONAL REGULATIONS, LAW, AND POLICIES OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
This course reviews current legal issues affecting the biotechnology industry and the general public. Special attention is devoted to approval processes and regulations, technology transfer, facility design, and cleaning validation, with emphasis placed on intellectual property issues involving patents, assignment and licensing of technology, and trademarks. Included are international regulations and political policies and their impact on strategic and policy development. Major theoretical and practical approaches are utilized to examine such issues as the debt crisis, trade disputes, NAFTA, and the expansion of the European Union.

BUS 7050 GROWTH STRATEGIES
This course focuses on the evaluation of opportunities and the challenges involved in the management of growth. Because growth is the ultimate resource “constrainer,” often stretching systems in a company to the limit and beyond, the course emphasizes management “at the limit” of what students may have already learned in other functional courses. It provides students with a series of frameworks, analytical skills and techniques, and decision-making tools used in growing businesses.

BUS 7060 VENTURE FINANCING STRATEGIES
This course focuses on raising seed and growth capital from various sources such as venture capital, business angels, investment banking, and commercial banking sources. It considers financial problems unique to small and medium-sized firms undergoing rapid growth. It also examines financial management for entrepreneurs over the life of a business project, including financing start-ups, financial planning for smaller enterprises, going public, selling out, bankruptcy, and other related topics.

BUS 7070 MANAGING BIOTECHNOLOGY INNOVATION
This course takes a critical look at biotech industries and the life sciences revolution, examining what major transitions in technology, markets, and government policy mean to both established and emerging players, and to the demands on management. Since biotech industries have not normally enjoyed experienced long-term leadership, it is often difficult for them to acquire a cutting edge, particularly when the playing field is being drastically altered and the rules of competition rewritten. Students leave the course with a better understanding of the global challenges facing these industries, and with a broader perspective of leadership and strategy.

BUS 7200 INNOVATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP (required)
This course looks at how to manage a business in an innovative and entrepreneurial culture. Topics include an overview of innovation and its value for a firm, entrepreneurial thinking as an approach to general management, how the innovation process works, creating entrepreneurial companies, organizing and managing innovation within existing firms, the role of technology, and coping with the strategic challenges facing all innovators. The course utilizes real-world learning techniques such as case studies, guest speakers, and projects.

BUS 7210 INNOVATIVE CULTURE AND LEADERSHIP (required)
Economies around the world have become increasingly knowledge- based. In accordance, innovation has become integral to organizational success, especially in a global context. This has forced organizational executives to gain the knowledge and skills required to foster an innovative work culture. This course provides a practical and theoretical understanding of how to create an innovative workforce through effective leadership and employee management. A complexity approach to innovation in organizations is used to contextualize the course content. A selection of leadership styles, competencies and methods are presented and explored through various experiential processes and activities.

BUS 7220 MANAGING CUSTOMER VALUE
This course develops business decision-making skills that touch on customer value as a prerequisite to business success. Topics include defining the term “customer value”; how to align the company’s product or service with customer needs and to distinguish it from competitive offerings; how to provide customers with a superior total package of benefits comprising the product itself, associated services, brand image, appropriate pricing, and availability; and an intimate understanding of customers’ needs and behaviour. Particular attention is paid to the unique contexts of marketing knowledge-intensive products and services, new and rapidly growing markets, business markets, and investors. Topics such as fusion branding and value-based marketing are also explored. This course readily lends itself to real-world learning and management skills.

BUS 7230 CREATIVITY AND INNOVATION FOR CHANGE MANAGEMENT
This course considers the dynamics of change in organizations and how to achieve key goals by combining analysis, creativity, and wisdom. Topics include the forces affecting the nature and rate of innovation, the advantages and disadvantages of existing organizations in pursuing innovation objectives, and the choices made at different levels in the organization which promote or hinder creativity/innovation. Teaching and learning tools include research, practice, student experience, case discussions, group work, peer consulting, teamwork, and projects.

BUS 7240 GOVERNANCE, LEADERSHIP, AND PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
This course provides a theoretical and practical understanding of leadership, professionalism, and governance. It takes a comprehensive and timely look at social responsibility and corporate citizenship for large and small enterprises, shareholders, and society at large as corporate leaders and managers consider the impacts of their activities and decisions on their employees, communities, and international markets. Consideration of leadership styles and methods are explored through various experiential processes such as self-assessment exercises, case studies, and presentations.

BUS 7250 MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNMENT PERSPECTIVES
In this course students examine the workings of various levels of government in order to understand more clearly how they, as managers and future leaders, can build knowledge of the interface between business and government into daily business operations and strategy. By developing a thorough command of how government works, students learn how executives and managers can deal more effectively with various levels of government and make better use of public affairs resources to address more astutely the public policy aspects of strategic planning.

BUS 7260 STRATEGY AND MANAGEMENT CONSULTING
This course looks at the subject of management consulting, which can provide some of the most challenging and rewarding aspects in today’s business world. Topics include global strategy, game theory, management of innovation and creativity, strategy implementation, structure of global industries, strategic alliances, and building global organizations. Emphasis is placed on challenges in the consulting industry, working with clients, and preparing effective reports. This includes how to analyze cross- functional business problems and provide recommendations by applying appropriate frameworks and quantitative tools.

BUS 7270 NEGOTIATION AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
This course teaches the dynamics of conflict in the workplace and the use of negotiation and conflict management skills to effectively manage such situations. Through a combination of discussion sessions, workshop exercises and simulation, participants will learn and apply essential negotiation strategies and approaches. In addition, participants will have an opportunity to focus on developing conflict management skills and negotiator styles through a series of self-assessments and role-playing exercises.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the instructor

BUS 7280 (Formerly 6060) INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
This course focuses on the challenges and opportunities of venturing into international markets.  The course addresses the complexities that arise when doing business in different business environments and cultural contexts.  Specific topics may include international strategy, managing currency risks, opportunity assessment, managing across borders, intercultural management, international negotiations, and ethical decision-making.

BUS 7850 SPECIAL TOPICS
This course focuses on a number of topics judged by faculty to be current and relevant within the context of managing in a business environment.

BUS 7860 DIRECTED STUDIES
In this course students pursue a specific topic or issue in business. Before approval is granted, each student must prepare a detailed outline of the topic to be studied, and obtain the consent of a faculty member to supervise the work.

BUS 8010 BUSINESS RESEARCH IN PRACTICE
This course requires students to complete a project or set of projects involving in-depth research. Potential projects include academic research papers, business plans, business case analyses or business consulting. To ensure integration of knowledge and skills, students will be expected to apply the concepts learned in the core courses of the EMBA program and to make evidence-based recommendations.
PREREQUISITES: All 8 core courses or permission of the Program Director
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Global Leadership

The MBA in Global Leadership is an intensive and cohort-model MBA program that is intended to be completed in twelve months. The curriculum and the offered courses are designed to develop students’ skills to enable them to succeed in today’s complex and dynamic international business environment.

STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAM

The MBA in Global Leadership program is designed for individuals who wish to complete their MBA degree in twelve months and who are willing and able to immerse themselves in an intensive full- time program.

The program begins with an orientation module (usually offered in late August). The remainder of the program is offered over the next three academic semesters (the Fall, Winter, and Summer semesters for students entering the program in August).

PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

Students enrolled in the MBA in Global Leadership must complete a total of 42 credit hours (14 courses). The components of the degree program include the MBA Skills Orientation Module (0 credit hours), eleven core courses (33 credit hours), and three elective courses (9 credit hours). Students are expected to complete the MBA program in twelve months, and they must complete all required courses within two years of being admitted to the program.

The required courses for the MBA in Global Leadership are as follows:
Business 6500 – MBA Skills Orientation Module
Business 6510 – Global Leadership and Ethics
Business 6520 – Negotiation within and across Cultures
Business 6530 – Financial and Managerial Accounting
Business 6540 – Financial Management
Business 6550 – Management and Organizational Behaviour
Business 6560 – International Marketing Management
Business 6570 – International Operations Management
Business 6580 – Statistics and Business Analytics
Business 6590 – Project Management
Business 6600 – Strategy for the Global Organization
Business 6610 – International Capstone Project

In addition to completing all the required courses, students must complete three of the following *elective courses:
Business 7510 – Corporate Governance and Business Ethics
Business 7520 – Disruptive Technologies and Creative Business Thinking
Business 7530 – Global Banking and Capital Markets
Business 7540 – Global Sourcing and Supply Chain Management
Business 7550 – Innovation and Entrepreneurship in the Global Business Environment
Business 7560 – International Trade and Finance
Business 7570 – Managing People and Teams in a Global Context
Business 7580 – The Future of Marketing
Business 7590 – The Impact of Climate Change on Business
Business 7950 – Special Topics in Business
Business 7960 – Directed Studies in International Business

*Not all elective courses will be offered each year.

BUS 6500 MBA SKILLS ORIENTATION MODULE
The orientation module is a set of skill-building workshops intended to promote presentation, intercultural communication, teamwork, and research skills. Students will receive an introduction to academic literature searching, citation and referencing styles, and the principles of academic integrity. Additionally, students will get information on UPEI’s online learning platforms, campus life, and what to expect from their MBA studies. The course grade will be on a pass/fail basis.
PREREQUISITE: Admission into the program
0 semester hours

BUS 6510 GLOBAL LEADERSHIP AND ETHICS
This intensive course provides students with an overview of leadership research and helps them develop skills required for leadership in today’s complex and dynamic business environment. Key areas of skill development include critical thinking, self-awareness, creativity, and problem solving. This course is also intended to advance students’ ability to engage in ethical reasoning and action planning.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week equivalent

BUS 6520 NEGOTIATION WITHIN AND ACROSS CULTURES
This intensive course introduces students to the theory and practice of negotiation. Topics covered include negotiation strategy, collective bargaining, the psychology of persuasion, creative problem solving, and conflict management and resolution. Through lectures, group discussions, and role plays, students are expected to develop analytical, self-awareness, and interpersonal skills essential to successful negotiations anywhere in the world.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6510
Three hours per week equivalent

BUS 6530 FINANCIAL AND MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING
This course develops students’ proficiency at understanding, interpreting, and using financial statements and other accounting information for the purposes of decision-making. The course employs international standards and addresses how accounting is used in decision-making in a global context.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 6540 FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT
This course provides students with a broad overview of corporate finance and financial markets. The focus is on the conceptual and analytical techniques necessary for making financial decisions with particular emphasis on information collection, problem-solving, and decision-making skills inherent in the finance function. Key concepts include the relevance of financial markets to the firm, understanding the relationship between risk and return and its importance in all financial decisions, and learning how to value financial and real assets and the impact on a company.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 6550 MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR
This course examines the behaviour and management of individuals and groups in organizations. Organizational behaviour topics, including motivation, decision making, leadership, and work and organizational design, will be studied at different levels of analysis – individual, team, and organization. Students also learn about managing people in organizations, with a focus on the personnel processes involved in the recruitment, development, and retention of human resources in the global workplace.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 6560 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING MANAGEMENT
This course is a detailed examination and application of the marketing function in the era of globalization. Emphasis is given to local consumer behaviour and the cultural, competitive, economic, political, and regulatory environments prevailing within and across world, regional, and national markets. Students will focus on the strategic and operational aspects of marketing including assessment of country attractiveness, mode of entry strategies, multinational product development and management, pricing strategies, promotional campaigns, and marketing networks and channels.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 6570 INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT
This course focuses on the management of processes. Applicable processes span a wide range including: one-time or on-going, international manufacturing or service, and pro- actively or reactively controlled. Topics include mapping operational processes, coordinating a firm’s supply and demand, managing inventory, and managing quality of production. Students are required to demonstrate competence through logical solving of relevant problems and cases in operations.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 6580 STATISTICS AND BUSINESS ANALYTICS
This course teaches students how to effectively collect and use data to support decision-making in a business context. The course focuses on understanding and interpreting statistical data; understanding how data collection methodology affects the quality of statistical results; and assessing the reliability, usefulness and limits of statistical information for a particular business situation.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 6590 PROJECT MANAGEMENT
This course provides students with the tools and skills necessary to reduce project risk and increase their ability to complete projects on time and on budget. The course incorporates the latest research on project management methodologies, providing students the ability to evaluate each methodology on their merits and how they have been applied within different industries and situations. The course also examines the evolution of the project driven organizational structure and the impact project management has on the strategic planning within an (international) organization.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 6600 STRATEGY FOR THE GLOBAL ORGANIZATION
This course focuses on strategic thinking, analysis, and management in a global business context. Topic include: industry analysis; competitive advantage; strategic change; global strategies; mergers, acquisitions and alliances; management of international portfolios; and intellectual property strategies.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6560
Three hours per week

BUS 6610 INTERNATIONAL CAPSTONE PROJECT
This course provides students with an opportunity to work on a live project for a local company seeking to enter new international markets or to establish new international operations. Working in teams, students will draw on skills, concepts, and knowledge acquired throughout the MBA program. Students will develop a business plan for entry into the chosen location. Students will also deliver a public presentation with recommendations for the particular company.
PREREQUISITES: Business 6530, 6540, 6550, and 6560
Three hours per week

BUS 7510 CORPORATE GOVERNANCE AND BUSINESS ETHICS
This course looks at both the fiduciary and strategic role of the board and management in governance with a global and local perspective. The course reviews the importance of strong business ethics and the critical elements in developing a strong corporate culture. Within the course students explore many of the pressing and evolving challenges faced by corporations and executives.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 7520 DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES AND CREATIVE BUSINESS THINKING
This course develops students’ ability to think creatively, and to manage within an environment of disruptive technologies. The course examines the research on disruptive technologies to enrich students’ understanding of the pace and direction of change and how it will influence companies as they adapt to the changing business world. The course also examines the research on creativity.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 7530 GLOBAL BANKING AND CAPITAL MARKETS
This course provides students with the conceptual foundation for sound financial decision-making regarding corporate finance, international finance, and banking. The course first examines currencies, with an in-depth analysis of exchange rates, international monetary systems, and contemporary currency regimes, with an emphasis on practical applications. The course then examines international capital markets, investment in foreign financial assets, and international corporate finance. Topics include managing exposure to various kinds of exchange rate risks, and the methods and financial instruments such as options and futures used to manage those risks.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6540
Three hours per week

BUS 7540 GLOBAL SOURCING AND SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT
This course familiarizes students with key features of global supply chains and their importance to international business. Topics include: supplier selection, negotiation of contracts, international logistics and importing, transportation, inventory control and warehousing, managing distribution networks, and integration with the firm’s other activities. Application and cases will be relevant to both manufacturing and service-based businesses.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6570
Three hours per week

BUS 7550 INNOVATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
This course focuses on the management of innovation and the pursuit of entrepreneurship in different regions of the world and in trans- national settings. The concepts covered are relevant to existing businesses aiming to structure their innovation portfolio and to new, aspiring businesses looking to create value from market opportunities. Topics include change management, technological innovation, entrepreneurship around the world, entrepreneurial marketing, entrepreneurial finance, and characteristics of entrepreneurs. Students are required to demonstrate competence through in-depth analysis of relevant cases related to these topics.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 7560 INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND FINANCE
This course focuses on the global marketplace and explores implications of globalization for trade and finance. Students will develop a comprehension of international economic and financial issues so that they understand the drivers underlying international trade and foreign investment. The course also examines management issues related to currency exchange rates and government imposed trade restrictions.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6540
Three hours per week

BUS 7570 MANAGING PEOPLE AND TEAMS IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT
This course will examine human resource management (HRM) in an international context. Students will examine core HRM functions, including staffing, training, motivating, and retaining human resources, with special emphasis on the opportunities and challenges brought on by increasing internationalization. Students are expected to acquire the knowledge, cross-cultural skills, and global mindset needed to effectively work with, manage, and lead others in the globalized workplace.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6520
Three hours per week

BUS 7580 THE FUTURE OF MARKETING
The course will examine current trends and innovations in marketing including shifting thought paradigms, global (cross-cultural) issues, customer relationship management, service marketing, sustainability and green marketing, and the role of social media. The course involves article discussions, in-class exercises, guest speakers, individual student reflections, case analyses, and a written research paper and presentation.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6560
Three hours per week

BUS 7590 THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON BUSINESS
This course provides the knowledge and skills for an informed understanding of climate change science, policy and business. Students will develop skills to critically evaluate scenarios for future climates, assess the effectiveness of different policy approaches, and determine suitable business responses to the climate change challenge. Assignments will focus on how climate change influences product quality and markets; and the important role of climate change in business risk assessment.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 7950 SPECIAL TOPICS IN BUSINESS
This course typically covers a specific topic in business and is intended to enhance and expand the selection of elective offerings from semester to semester.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week

BUS 7960 DIRECTED STUDIES IN INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
In this course, students may pursue a specific topic or issue in international business through an independent research assignment, consulting project, or business plan for an entrepreneurial venture. Before approval is granted, each student must prepare a detailed outline of the topic to be studied and obtain the consent of a faculty member to supervise the work.
PREREQUISITE: Business 6500
Three hours per week equivalent

Master of Nursing (MN)

A) PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS

The Master of Nursing program has two streams: the Thesis Stream and the Nurse Practitioner Stream. The Master’s program is built on the existing strengths of the faculty and the focus of Primary Health Care, which is the foundation for the curriculum in the current undergraduate program. Graduates from both streams will be prepared to function in an advanced practice role in Primary Health Care settings. The MN Thesis graduate will be prepared to engage in a variety of advanced practice roles including, but not limited to, direct care of individuals; families, communities or populations; education; administration and research. The MN Nurse Practitioner graduate will be prepared to manage the health needs of individuals; families; groups and communities across the lifespan. Graduates of the Nurse Practitioner Stream will be eligible to write the Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) Canadian Nurse Practitioner Exam. The degree designated upon successful completion of either stream is a Master of Nursing (MN).

Thesis Stream: 8 courses plus thesis
NURS 6100 – Foundations of Graduate Study
NURS 6110 – Theoretical Foundations of Nursing
NURS 6120 – Advanced Primary Health Care
NURS 6130 – Quantitative Nursing Research
NURS 6140 – Qualitative Nursing Research
NURS 6210 – Ethics in Nursing
NURS 6220 – Advanced Nursing Practice
NURS 6360 – Biostatistics
NURS 6000 – Thesis
27 credit hours plus 9 for thesis

TOTAL of 36 credit hours

Please note: Admission to the Thesis stream occurs annually

NP Stream: 12 courses
NURS 6010 – Advanced Human Physiology and Pathophysiology
NURS 6110 – Theoretical Foundations of Nursing
NURS 6120 – Advanced Primary Health Care
NURS 6130 – Quantitative Nursing Research
NURS 6140 – Qualitative Nursing Research
NURS 6150 – Advanced Health Assessment
NURS 6160 – Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice
NURS 6310 – Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Across the Life Span
NURS 6320 – Episodic Health Care Across the Life Span
NURS 6330 – Professional Role of the Nurse Practitioner
NURS 6340 – Chronic Disease Management
NURS 6350 – Nurse Practitioner Practicum

TOTAL of 49 credit hours and 700 clinical hours

Please note: Admission to the Nurse Practitioner Stream occurs every second year.

C) GRADUATE COURSES

NURS 6000 THESIS
Under the supervision of a faculty advisor and a thesis committee, the student will write a thesis based on research related to an approved topic. The thesis must demonstrate the candidate’s capacity for independent work, and should include a critical evaluation of the principal works published on the subject of the thesis. It should make an original contribution to the body of knowledge in that field of study.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 9 (Pass/Fail)

NURS 6010 ADVANCED HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY & PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
This course discusses the function of human organ systems, emphasizing disease states. Seminars and independent study will focus on how to diagnose diseases, minimize disease risk and formulate therapeutic management plans. A combination of formal lectures, seminars, directed readings and case studies is used.
Cross-listed with Biology 4010.
PREREQUISITE: Enrolment in the Master of Nursing, Nurse Practitioner (NP) stream
LECTURE: 3 hours
SEMINAR: 2-3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

NURS 6100 FOUNDATIONS OF GRADUATE STUDY
This course is designed to develop and consolidate advanced information and writing skills required for scholarly work. Students will learn to pose research questions, use evidence to support claims and communicate evidence-based practice. The course will foster a culture of graduate study.
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (Pass/Fail)

NURS 6110 THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF NURSING
This course focuses on the nature and use of inquiry in the development and refinement of nursing knowledge. It provides students with the opportunity to discuss and analyze conceptual, philosophical, and theoretical bases for advanced nursing practice from a primary health care perspective. Students will critically examine theories from nursing, as well as borrowed theories from other disciplines that inform and guide nursing practice, research, and education. Students will analyze concepts relevant to advanced nursing practice and critique and discuss the value of theory to the future of nursing. During this course, students will develop increasing competence in professional oral and written communication.
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

NURS 6120 ADVANCED PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
This course will draw upon theory on the social determinants of health, primary health care, wellness promotion, program planning and evaluation, population health, and healthy public policy. Links to social, cultural, environmental, political, and economic contexts that impact on health, equity, and health disparities will be critically analyzed. Research-based evidence central to primary health care and advanced nursing practice will be examined. Emphasis throughout will be placed on upstream, participatory, and collaborative approaches to the development of population health initiatives and healthy public policy.
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

NURS 6130 QUANTITATIVE NURSING RESEARCH
The purpose of this course is to develop the student’s ability to critique and use existing quantitative research and to conduct original quantitative research. The research process will be examined with respect to the philosophical underpinnings of quantitative research; research ethics; developing research problems, questions, and hypotheses; writing literature reviews; using conceptual/theoretical frameworks; using experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental designs; sampling; measurement; collecting and analyzing data; interpreting results; and assessing rigor.
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

NURS 6140 QUALITATIVE NURSING RESEARCH
The purpose of this course is to develop the student’s ability to critique and use existing qualitative research and to conduct original qualitative research. The epistemological and ontological underpinnings of qualitative research will be explored. The qualitative research process will be examined with respect to research ethics; developing research questions and objectives; using qualitative methodologies of ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, critical and feminist theory, participatory action research, and narrative inquiry; sampling; collecting and analyzing data; interpreting results; and assessing trustworthiness.
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

NURS 6150 ADVANCED HEALTH ASSESSMENT
With a focus on detailed history taking, interpretation, synthesis, diagnostic differentiation and formulation, and documentation of clinical findings, this course enhances and refines the student’s clinical, theoretical, and scientific knowledge base related to health assessment. Aspects of diagnostic reasoning will be investigated, critically reviewed, and applied to clinical case studies across the lifespan. Elements of advanced client assessment including physical and mental status; psychosocial, family, community, cultural, and diversity factors; the implications of social determinants of health; and risk appraisal will be addressed in terms of their impact upon a client’s health status. Approaches to effective written and verbal communication of findings and diagnostic reasoning will feature prominently in this course.
LECTURE: 3 hours
LAB: 2 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 4

NURS 6160 PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS FOR ADVANCED PRACTICE
This course provides students with an opportunity to acquire the advanced knowledge required to critically appraise/interpret concepts integral to pharmacotherapy and advanced counseling in the treatment of common conditions seen across the lifespan in primary health care settings. Building upon basic pharmacologic principles and the pharmacologic actions of the major drug classes, learning will focus on the preparation of students to develop, initiate, manage, and evaluate patient-centred therapeutic plans of care. In addition, students will analyze different pharmacotherapeutic principles and approaches in relation to physiologic systems, with an emphasis on the competent application of these pharmaceutical agents. Legal aspects related to prescriptive authority will be fully addressed. A combination of formal lectures, seminars, directed readings, and case studies will be used.
PREREQUISITE: Enrolment in the Master of Nursing program, Nurse Practitioner stream
LECTURE: 3 hours
SEMINAR: 2-3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

NURS 6210 ETHICS IN NURSING
In all aspects of their professional lives, nurses encounter ethical issues. Grounded in primary health care, this course will identify issues which occur when caring for clients across the life span using a framework of ethical principles and theories. Nurses explore current critical issues encountered in nursing and health care as the relationship with the health care system and society is considered.
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

NURS 6220 ADVANCED NURSING PRACTICE
In this course, students synthesize and integrate knowledge of research, theory, philosophy, ethics, clinical care, education, organizational change, and leadership to provide primary health care to diverse populations across the lifespan. They will demonstrate autonomy in decision-making and the critical analysis of organizational and system issues that influence scope of practice and professional accountability. In the clinical experience, students will demonstrate their competence in integrating the theory of advanced nursing practice in a chosen domain, based on availability of clinical agency experts and faculty expertise.
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
CLINICAL EXPERIENCE: 72 hours across the course
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

NURS 6310 HEALTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN
This course will focus on the teaching-coaching function of the nurse practitioner in health promotion, screening and disease prevention activities across the life span for individuals, families and communities. Epidemiological principles and health promotion goals will be examined, with emphasis on cultural and environmental influences, individual assessment, and evidence informed practice. Methods of inter-sectoral collaboration and intervention strategies to optimize health-seeking behaviours within the context of the family, group, and/or community will be explored.
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
CLINICAL EXPERIENCE: 100 hours across the course
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

NURS 6320 EPISODIC HEALTH CARE ACROSS THE LIFE SPAN
This course deals with the diagnosis and management of episodic and common acute health conditions experienced by clients across the life span. Pathophysiology, assessment, and diagnostic strategies specific to the acute and common problems of clients of all ages will be stressed. Nursing strategies used to restore, maintain and enhance health are emphasized, as are the biological, psychological, social and cultural aspects of care.
PREREQUISITES: NURS 6010 and NURS 6160
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
CLINICAL EXPERIENCE: 200 hours across the course
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

NURS 6330 PROFESSIONAL ROLE OF THE NURSE PRACTITIONER
This course assists the student to explain and promote the role of the nurse practitioner. It addresses political, social, and economic forces related to the scope of practice, as well as system and organizational issues that may affect the delivery of care. Emphasis is placed on the legal and ethical considerations for the nurse practitioner in an extended practice environment. The skills in leadership and collaborative interdisciplinary practice necessary to perform the NP role will also be emphasized.
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

NURS 6340 CHRONIC DISEASE MANAGEMENT
This course applies concepts of pharmacology, advanced counselling, and complementary therapies to clients and specific populations with chronic health conditions across the life span. The focus will be on nursing interventions that assist clients with multiple care needs to manage their chronic disease conditions, while optimizing health and preventing/ minimizing disability. The selection of clinical interventions, clinical decision-making, and evaluation of strategies used to enhance the health outcomes for the chronically ill will be stressed. Emphasis is placed on evidence informed practice and accepted clinical guidelines.
PREREQUISITES: NURS 6010 and NURS 6160
LECTURE/SEMINAR: 3 hours
CLINICAL EXPERIENCE: 200 hours across the course
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

NURS 6350 NURSE PRACTITIONER PRACTICUM
This course provides the student with an opportunity to integrate and consolidate theory, research, and advanced knowledge and skills required of the nurse practitioner in providing primary health care to clients, families, groups and communities experiencing common episodic and chronic health related problems/illnesses. The focus will be on the refinement of critical thinking skills, clinical reasoning, and advanced practice clinical judgment in assessment, diagnosis, and management of clients’ health. Collaboration with clients, families, and other health care professionals will be emphasized. Students will develop role competencies under the supervision of a faculty member and a clinical preceptor negotiated by the student and professor.
PREREQUISITES: NURS 6010 and NURS 6160
CLINICAL EXPERIENCE: 200 hours across the course
SEMINAR: 3 hours
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6 (Pass/Fail)

NURS 6360 BIOSTATISTICS
This course is designed to present the fundamental concepts of statistical applications to quantitative methods for graduate students in applied health sciences. The presentation of the course and accompanying materials are organized into five distinct sections: 1) data management and reporting, 2) processing continuous data to produce descriptive statistics, 3) processing discrete data to produce descriptive statistics, 4) concepts related to probability, and 5) testing hypotheses and measuring effect size.
LECTURE: 3 hours
LABORATORY: A series of assignments has been created that students can access via the web. This will constitute the laboratory component of the course.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

PhD in Educational Studies

The degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) in Educational Studies is a research degree requiring a dissertation on original and significant research within traditional educational and community-based educational contexts extending from early childhood through mature adulthood.

The general goal of the Doctor of Philosophy program in Educational Studies at the University of Prince Edward Island is to examine education at an advanced level from a variety of perspectives, including, but not limited to, the investigation of theoretical and practical aspects of policy, curricula, teaching and teacher education, administration, and professionalism.

Graduates of the PhD in Educational Studies develop the competence and expertise needed to assume positions of leadership, such as educational researchers in institutional and non-institutional contexts; teacher educators; curriculum and instructional leaders in school boards and private industry; and school, school board, and governmental educational administrators. This program also promotes collaborative work with colleagues in educational endeavours and lifelong professional development. The program provides learning opportunities in which the candidate, in supervisory and collegial relationships with one or more faculty members:

1. develops a critical and comprehensive understanding of significant trends and major concerns in the field of education, and formulates and expresses, both orally and in writing, personal and professional positions in relation to how these trends and concerns are manifested in their area of interest;

2. develops in-depth knowledge and understanding of different philosophical stances in education and educational research and their sociopolitical and practical implications;

3. develops an understanding of, and ability to use and evaluate, a wide range of research methodologies used in educational research;

4. designs and presents a proposal for an original research project of significance in the field of education;

5. completes the proposed research under faculty supervision, then writes and orally defends a dissertation;

6. develops competencies in clear and logical writing skills that allow for disseminating knowledge to a variety of audiences;

7. develops competencies in leadership roles within formal and/or informal educational institutions, agencies, or communities.

Supervisory Committee

The candidate works with a supervisor, and possibly a co-supervisor, appointed at the time of admission to the program and based on a fit between the candidate’s area of interest and the area of expertise, publication, and funding of the supervisor(s). Supervisor(s) are member(s) of the UPEI graduate faculty with supervisory or co-supervisory privileges. The Supervisory Committee is chaired or co-chaired by the supervisor(s) and includes two other members of the UPEI graduate faculty.

Program Requirements

Students are enrolled in the UPEI PhD program in Educational Studies as a full-time student for three years. This program also requires a residency of three semesters, normally completed consecutively. If, after three years, students have not completed all degree requirements, they continue to pay a maintenance fee to UPEI until all requirements are completed. Students have a maximum of seven years to complete all degree requirements.

The UPEI PhD in Educational Studies includes four courses, a comprehensive portfolio, and a dissertation.

Required courses:

ED 7000 – Advanced Quantitative Methodology and Methods in Education Research
ED 7010 – Advanced Qualitative Methodology and Methods in Education Research
ED 7020 – Directed Studies in Educational Research Methodology and Methods
ED 7034 – Theory in Educational Research
ED 7040 – Graduate Seminar in Educational Studies
ED 7050 – Comprehensive Portfolio
ED 7060 – PhD Dissertation

Submission of Dissertation

When the dissertation, in its final form, has been prepared after the final oral examination, the student brings six unbound copies to the Co-ordinator of Graduate Studies at least four weeks prior to Convocation.

Each copy must be submitted in a separate folder with the pages numbered and arranged in the appropriate order. The dissertation must be free from typographical and other errors. All copies must include the Certificate of Approval signed by the Examination Committee and the members of the Supervisory Committee. Also included must be a brief Abstract and a copy of the circulation waiver and the copying licence.

When accepted by the Coordinator of Graduate Studies, one copy is retained for microfilming and deposited to the University Library after being bound. A second copy is released to the Faculty of Education. A third copy is released to the student’s supervisor and three copies are released to the student.

Publication

The University requires publication of the dissertation in the following manner:

One unbound copy of the dissertation is forwarded to Library and Archives Canada, together with an agreement form signed by the candidate authorizing Library and Archives Canada to microfilm the dissertation and make microfilm copies available for sale on request. Library and Archives Canada film the dissertation exactly as it is and list the dissertation in Canadiana as a publication of Library and Archives Canada.

A fee is charged by Library and Archives Canada to offset the cost of microfilming.

A Library and Archives Canada Microfilm Agreement form is sent to the candidate prior to the PhD Dissertation, to be signed and submitted to the Coordinator of Graduate Studies immediately after the successful completion of the examination.

The student, in consultation with the Supervisor and the Coordinator of Graduate Studies, shall have the right to request that circulation and/or copying of the dissertation in any form be withheld.

Circulation and Copying of Dissertation

In normal circumstances, as a condition of engaging in graduate study at the University, the author of a dissertation grants certain licences and waivers in respect to the circulation and copying of the dissertation:

  • to the University Librarian, a waiver permitting the circulation of the dissertation as part of the Library collection;
  • to the University, a licence to make single copies of the dissertation under carefully specified conditions;
  • to Library and Archives Canada, a licence to microfilm the dissertation under carefully specified conditions.

Copyright Provision

Copies of the dissertation shall have on the title page the words “In partial fulfilment of requirements for the degree of PhD in Educational Studies.” The international copyright notice, which consists of three elements in the same line — the © symbol (the letter “C” enclosed in a circle), the name of the copyright owner (the student), and the year — should appear as a bottom line on the title page of the dissertation.

GRADUATE COURSES

ED 7000 ADVANCED QUANTITATIVE METHODOLOGY AND METHODS IN EDUCATION RESEARCH
This course explores an extensive range of quantitative approaches to research in education including, but not limited to, experimental and quasi-experimental research and surveys. The course also focuses on statistical analyzes appropriate for quantitative research.
CREDIT HOURS: 3

ED 7010 ADVANCED QUALITATIVE METHODOLOGY AND METHODS IN EDUCATION RESEARCH
This course explores a range of qualitative methodologies and methods in qualitative inquiry in educational studies and locates these approaches in broader theoretical and epistemological trends in social science and humanities. In addition, students will explore varying ways to collect, analyze and interpret qualitative data. Taught by active researchers with expertise in qualitative research methodologies, the course prepares students for critiquing and using qualitative research.
CREDIT HOURS: 3

ED 7020 DIRECTED STUDIES IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND METHODS
Working with their dissertation supervisor(s), students develop in-depth knowledge and practical expertise related to specific research methods appropriate to their chosen dissertations.

ED 7030 DIRECTED STUDIES IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH AND THEORY
Facilitated by the student’s supervisor(s), this course focuses on reading and development of a comprehensive literature review in the area of interest of the student’s doctoral dissertation.

ED 7034 THEORY IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH
This course focuses on the evolution of educational thought from a variety of cultural perspectives. The interplay of theorists and theories from philosophy, psychology, and sociology will be drawn together to explore their influence on conceptions and practices of education.
PREREQUISITE: ED 7040 and one methods course (ED 7000 or ED 7010)
CREDIT HOURS: 3

ED 7040 GRADUATE SEMINAR IN EDUCATIONAL STUDIES
In this seminar, students are exposed to and engaged in selecting and critiquing a wide variety of public scholarly presentations by visiting scholars and UPEI faculty researchers, and facilitating scholarly dialogue among those who attend. The course also requires students to prepare a book review for publication in a scholarly journal, and present for critique by peers and colleagues the literature review prepared for ED 7030.

ED 7050 COMPREHENSIVE PORTFOLIO
The Comprehensive Portfolio is an independent work, separate from the dissertation proposal, where the student provides evidence of his or her knowledge, skills, and readiness to embark on a dissertation journey. Students collect pieces of their own work completed throughout the program, in a variety of formats, which demonstrate 1) that they have read broadly in the field of educational studies; 2) that they have in-depth knowledge of the literature in one area of research interest, which could be related or unrelated to the intended dissertation topic; and 3) that they have a critical understanding of methodologies and attendant methods used in educational studies, including quantitative and qualitative paradigms. In an introduction to the portfolio, students make a case for the documents they include in the portfolio by justifying how the documents demonstrate that the goals of the comprehensive requirement have been reached.

ED 7060 PhD DISSERTATION
The PhD dissertation provides evidence of the candidate’s ability to carry out independent and original research, develop the necessary theoretical and methodological framework and analyzes, and present the findings in a scholarly manner.

PhD Faculty of Science (Environmental Sciences (ESC) and Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences (MMS))

A) STRUCTURE OF THE PROGRAM

The purpose of this PhD degree program is to provide a doctoral level research experience for candidates, ensuring that they develop critical thinking, creativity and subject mastery through their program. A secondary objective is

to provide a value added degree containing a significant, Business (PhD MMS) or (environmental communications) (PhD ESC) component to the studies. This degree will offer graduate education at the PhD level that meets the needs of the global scientific business, industry, research and academic environments in Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences, or Environmental Sciences both identified as constellations of research strength at UPEI.

These degree programs are research-intensive and will require the student to develop a thesis based around an individual, independent thesis topic. This foundation will be complemented by graduate-level constellation-based courses, a comprehensive examination and a final oral defence of the thesis. Unless otherwise specified below, the “General Regulations for Graduate Programs” will apply to the Doctorate of Philosophy in Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences and Environmental Sciences degrees.

Admission Requirements

Acceptance into the program will be granted on the basis of qualifications and suitability to fit into the main research endeavours of MMS or ESC members who are also members of the Graduate Faculty with a PhD/Masters supervisory role.

Students must hold a Master of Science degree or its equivalent from a recognized university and have achieved at least a second class standing (70-80%) for this degree. Students may also be admitted to the PhD program by registering in the existing MSc program in Science and transferring to the PhD program after twelve (12) to eighteen (18) months upon the recommendation of their supervisory committee. In special circumstances, highly exceptional students with first- class BSc Honours degrees may be admitted directly to the PhD program (contact the office of the Dean of Science for specific criteria for admission). Evidence will be required that the applicant is capable of undertaking substantial original research. Admission to the MMS or ESC PhD programs is granted on the basis of a recommendation of the Faculty of Science Graduate Studies Committee and explicit supervisory support from a faculty member within the corresponding constellation. Faculty members must demonstrate research funding to cover four years of guaranteed stipend support or exhibit sufficient research progress that funding renewal is expected.

Applicants are encourage to visit the Faculty of Science Graduate Studies website (http://www.upei.ca/science/graduatestudies) and contact faculty members within the MMS or ESC constellations to discuss research interests and to confirm the availability of a position within their group. Secondly, applicants will submit an application package including an application form, official university transcripts for the applicant’s complete undergraduate and graduate (if any) record to date, three letters of reference, at least two of which should be from faculty members with a strong familiarity with the applicant’s academic and research background, proof of English language proficiency such as TOEFL scores (for applicants whose first language is not English) which meet the minimum scores as listed under the general Admission Requirements in the university Calendar and evidence of the ability to conduct substantial original research including, but not limited to, theses, publications and research presentations.

Residency Requirements

Given the nature of these programs, a minimum of six full terms (two fall, two winter, and two summer terms) is required to complete course work. A maximum period of seven (7) years from the date of registration will be allocated for the completion of the PhD program. Exceptional circumstances will be considered provided that they are supported by the student’s supervisor and properly communicated, discussed and supported by the supervisory committee. In all cases, extensions beyond this maximum period must be approved by the Faculty of Science Graduate Studies Committee and the Office of Graduate Studies.

Supervision

In the first semester of the PhD program, each student will be assigned a supervisory committee which will consist of the student’s supervisor and three (3) members chosen from UPEI faculty or adjunct faculty within the corresponding constellation (or from the Faculty of Business in the case of MMS) or a cognate discipline. For MMS students, it is expected that at least two members of the committee will be from the MMS constellation and that at least one member of the committee will have significant business experience, either as a member of the Faculty of Business or as an adjunct or regular faculty member with industrial expertise. The majority of students’ time will be engaged in developing their research project, but this experience will be supplemented by coursework in Science and Business; specific courses will be chosen in consultation with the supervisory committee.

Research

Independent research will be the major focus of the PhD degree. Normally, the equivalent of at least nine full-time semesters must be devoted to research in fulfillment of the thesis requirement. Summers during which research work is actively conducted may be counted as research semester equivalents. In order to avoid undue prolongation of the time required to complete the degree, the research topic should be identified early and approved by the Supervisory Committee. The research should comprise an extensive body of original research in the candidate’s field, making a true contribution exemplifying the student’s depth of knowledge, creativity, innovation and proven ability to make significant scientific research contributions. Research progress will be monitored by biannual meetings of the Supervisory Committee as proscribed by the Faculty of Science Graduate Studies Committee. Research involving the use of hazardous materials must follow the Guidelines of the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System. Research involving animals or humans, must follow established protocols on Animal care and ethics, respectively.

Candidacy Examination

Doctoral students must complete a candidacy examination within two (2) years of entering the PhD program. Students who register as Master’s students at UPEI and then transfer into the PhD program must complete their candidacy exam within three (3) years of registering as a graduate student at UPEI. Before the exam, the student must present a basic thesis proposal to the Supervisory Committee and obtain a recommendation that the student proceed with the oral candidacy exam. The supervisory committee will inform the Faculty of Science Graduate Studies Committee of this decision, and will suggest the make-up of the Candidacy Examination Committee.

The Candidacy Examination Committee will consist of two (2) members of the Supervisory Committee and one (1) external faculty member from the University of Prince Edward Island who does not necessarily need to fall within the corresponding research constellation; this third member could be from another scientific research constellation. A designate from the Faculty of Science Graduate Studies Committee will act as Chair of the examination.

The student will then distribute copies of a detailed thesis proposal (MMS) or an original essay (ESC) to the Candidacy Examination Committee and the Faculty of Science Graduate Studies Committee. The latter will schedule a mutually agreeable time and place for the exam. This proposal (MMS) or essay (ESC) must be received at least three weeks prior to the scheduled exam. The expanded thesis proposal (MMS) should address not only the research plan, but also how the student’s courses in both MMS and Business relate to the proposed work. The essay (ESC) should address a topic considered relevant to ESC as identified in advance by the Candidacy Examination Committee. The examination begins with a formal presentation by the student not to exceed 30 minutes followed by the candidate being asked to respond to questions from the Examination Committee on topics related to the proposed area of research or essay and general topics in the student’s field. The questions, while broad in scope, will invariably focus on the student’s research proposal and will evaluate the student’s expertise in their field. The Examination Committee will then deliberate in a closed session to make a judgment of satisfactory or unsatisfactory. A judgment of satisfactory will result in the student being declared a PhD Candidate. If the judgment is unsatisfactory, the student will be required to re-take the exam within 4 months. A second unsatisfactory judgment will result in the student being required to withdraw from the PhD program. If the student has not previously completed an MSc degree, he or she is then free to enter the MSc program and transfer research and academic coursework.

Thesis

Each candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences or Environmental Sciences is required to submit a thesis based upon the research conducted under supervision described above. The thesis must demonstrate the candidate’s capacity for original and independent work, and should include a critical evaluation of work which has previously been done in the field of his or her research. The thesis should emphasize any new conclusions which may be drawn from the candidate’s own research.

For MMS students, while there is no requirement that the work conducted be directed towards industry, business or commercial applications, students are expected to address the significance and importance of their work to technology, industry and innovation in Canada and the world. General specifications as to type of paper, format, order and binding will be available as necessary.

Examination

The final oral examination of the PhD thesis will consist of a research seminar, followed by questions from the Doctoral Examination committee. The examination will be public, but members of the audience may only question the candidate upon invitation of the Chair of the Committee. The committee will be chaired by a representative from the Faculty of Science Graduate Studies Committee and will consist of five members as follows: Two (2) representatives from the student’s supervisory committee, One (1) internal examiner from the University of Prince Edward Island, preferably a faculty member with relevant research experience, One (1) external examiner from outside the University of Prince Edward Island, preferably from another University or Research Institute, as deemed appropriate.

The external examiner will be chosen by the Faculty of Science Graduate Studies Committee from a list of three arms-length nominees who should be experts in the candidate’s research field. The nominees will be suggested by the Supervisory Committee in consultation with the student. It is preferred if the external examiner can attend the examination in person, however the external examiner can participate via video or audio conference call if this is impractical. Following the examination, the candidate will leave the room and the committee will deliberate upon the decision.

The members of the Examination committee, including the External Examiner, report individually on both the defence and the thesis, the candidate being deemed to have passed if not more than one of the five Examiners votes negatively. An abstention is regarded as a negative vote. If successful, the candidate will be awarded his or her PhD degree. If unsuccessful, the candidate will be permitted to retake the examination within 6 months. If unsuccessful in the second attempt, the student will be required to withdraw from the PhD program. If the student has not previously completed an MSc degree, he or she is then free to enter the MSc program and transfer research and academic coursework.

COURSES

1) PhD IN MOLECULAR AND MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCES COURSES

Students will be required to take three (3) graduate-level courses in Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences, three (3) graduate-level courses in business, and one (1) capstone course that integrates science and business components. Each student must complete a minimum of three (3) courses within the first 18 months of the degree, which may be a combination of the science and business requirements but must include at least one MMS and one business course. In addition, students should have started their capstone project, although completion of this project is not a requirement for this period.

Following this initial stage of research and coursework, each student will take a candidacy exam adjudicated by a Candidacy Examination Committee, and upon its successful completion will become a PhD candidate. Completion of the remaining required courses, further development of the research project, and preparation of a thesis within a maximum of seven (7) years will culminate in the defence of this body of work in a public forum, adjudicated by the student’s supervisory committee and an external examiner who will be an expert in the student’s field of research. If a student, for any reason, withdraws from the PhD program they may elect to enter the MSc program at UPEI if no such degree has been previously obtained.

Graduate students are required to register for MMS 8010—PhD thesis throughout their degree program. Additional required constellation-based courses include MMS 8020—Molecules, Macromolecules and the Business of Science and MMS 8030—Directed Studies in Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences. Students are also required to take 2 additional MMS electives at the graduate level. Business requirements include BUS 6030—Marketing Management, BUS 7010—Biotechnology Management and Development and BUS 702— Commercialization of Biotechnology and Innovations.

MMS 8010 PHD THESIS
This is a research-oriented course in which students will conduct an extensive original research project, culminating in the submission and defence of a thesis. Students must register in this course each semester to maintain enrolment in the program. It embodies the research component of the PhD program.

MMS 8020 MOLECULES, MACROMOLECULES AND THE BUSINESS OF SCIENCE
This capstone course highlights the integration between Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences and Business. In conjunction with the Program Coordinators and the PEI BioAlliance, the student will be paired with a receptive industry or government partner to develop a new research idea, direction, or application of potential interest to industry. The student will consult on scientific business ideas within the context of recent literature, scientific expertise, and the current industrial environment, with a focus on entrepreneurship and the development of new scientific products, processes, or markets. The partner in this course will be chosen so that the project will build toward the student’s doctoral thesis with integration across all three components (doctoral-level study, MMS, and the business of science) of the program. This
cross-sector collaboration will culminate in the student presenting and defending his/her work on the developed concept to industry and academic experts. This six-credit course will take place over a period of two–three semesters.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to PhD program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 6

MMS 8030 DIRECTED STUDIES IN MOLECULAR AND MACROMOLECULAR SCIENCES
This course is a thorough study of a selected topic in the Molecular and Macromolecular Sciences constellation. Entry to the course, and the course outline, are subject to the approval of the Supervisory Committee and the Dean of Science. The course may include directed reading, directed research, and discussion with the instructor. The student may be required to prepare a written report and/or present a seminar in the area. Topics must not be directly related to the student’s research project, although they may be in the same discipline. Coverage of the topic by the student must include the relevant commercial and business aspects of the field.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ELECTIVE COURSES

MMS 8040 FIELD COURSE IN MARINE DRUG DISCOVERY
This course offering will familiarize students in the areas of marine natural products, marine taxonomy, field based biological assays of relevance to drug discovery, marine microbiology, and biotechnology. Lectures will introduce students to the concepts of field research and their applications to drug discovery. Students will participate in field collections of marine invertebrates. The collected organisms will then be subjected to several biological and chemical assays. Students will present field reports identifying the collected species and any chemical or biological activities observed. The second half of the course will focus on supervised research projects. The project topics will be chosen by the students and instructors. In lieu of a textbook, students will be provided with a collection of several publications from the marine natural products literature. These articles will include reviews of marine natural products, reports of recent advances, and founding texts of the field. Course experience in invertebrate zoology at the undergraduate level is strongly recommended.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8050 ADVANCED STUDIES IN NMR SPECTROSCOPY
This course covers the use of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry used in the determination of structures in Organic and Inorganic Chemistry. Major topics include the theory and use of NMR spectroscopy, in particular the use of 2D experiments and multi-nuclear NMR spectroscopy. Particular emphasis is placed on developing the students’ ability to interpret spectra and elucidate the structure of a molecule based on this evidence beyond the undergraduate level, as well as the role NMR has played as a structural tool in the pharmaceutical industry and academia. Students will have a practical/hands-on component in this course.
Cross-listed with CHEM 4050.  Credit cannot be received for both MMS 8050 and CHEM 4050.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
Restriction: Student must be admitted into a graduate program in Science.

MMS 8060 ADVANCED TOPICS IN COMPUTATIONAL CHEMISTRY
This course exercises the application of computational chemistry to structural and reactivity questions in organic and inorganic chemistry. Computational methods discussed include molecular mechanics, ab initio and semi-empirical calculations, and density functional theory. The objective is to gain an understanding of the application of these methods to chemical problems. The current literature is explored to illustrate the use of computational chemistry in research.
Restriction: Student must be admitted to the MSc Program
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Chemistry.

MMS 8070 ADVANCED STUDIES IN INORGANIC REACTION MECHANISMS
This course develops inorganic reaction mechanisms, with an emphasis on catalytic cycles, catalyst development, and the context of these reactions within the polymer, pharmaceutical and consumer product industries. Students will learn how to support reaction mechanisms through appropriate experimentation and spectroscopic characterization of catalysts, reactions and products. Students will examine how new catalysts are developed, patented and brought into commercial use. Major projects include a patent application on an imaginary catalytic system, and a report assessing the commercial relevance of a recent literature discovery.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8080 GREEN CHEMISTRY
This course will develop the fundamentals of greener chemical processes and syntheses. The course will present the principles of green chemistry in the context of case studies within Canadian academia and industry. Coursework and projects will aim to develop synthetic skills, providing students with the tools to propose green synthetic plans for small molecules and polymers while introducing students to wider political and environmental issues which impact on chemical industry.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8090 BIOMATERIALS
This course covers the fundamentals of the synthesis, properties, and biocompatibility of metallic, ceramic, polymeric, and biological materials that come in contact with tissue and biological fluids. Emphasis is placed on using biomaterials for both hard and soft tissue replacement, organ replacement, coatings and adhesives, dental implants, and drug delivery systems. New trends in biomaterials, such as electrically conductive polymers, piezoelectric biomaterials, and solgel processing are discussed, and the recent merging of cell biology and biochemistry with materials is examined.
Cross-listed with CHEM 4090. Credit cannot be received for both MMS 8090 and CHEM 4090.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8100 SOFT CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS
This course utilizes a variety of tools developed within the general framework of statistical and solid-state physics to study the structural and dynamic properties of a number of important soft-condensed matter systems, including: polymers, liquid crystals, and membranes. Some key topics include: (1) Liquid crystals: elasticity, deformations, surface effects, fluctuations and scattering; (2) Polymers: chain conformations, mixtures and phase behaviour, motion in melts and glasses (viscoelasticity, relaxation, reptation); (3) Membranes: two and three-dimensional networks, self-assembly of amphiphiles, thermal fluctuations in membrane shape, bilayer bending and surface curvature. One of the goals of the course is to introduce students to a variety of important analytical methods, including: mean-field theory, density functional theory, Landau-Ginzberg theory, and renormalization-group theory. In addition, a number of key computational methods are employed to explore the properties of some simple polymeric systems, including: Monte Carlo, Molecular Dynamics and Discontinuous Molecular Dynamics.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8110 ADVANCE TOPICS IN MATERIALS CHARACTERIZATION
This course introduces students to instrumentation that is routinely used in materials chemistry. The techniques to be covered include powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, electron microscopy, AC impedance and Raman spectroscopy. The theory behind these techniques will be thoroughly discussed in class, with an emphasis of data interpretation. Students will also gain hands-on experience with these instrumental techniques through laboratory work.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

MMS 8130 ADVANCED TECHNIQUES IN SCANNING ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY
This course covers the principles of scanning electron microscopy, including techniques used for the preparation of biological or other materials for microscopy and the use of specialized software to analyze surface features of samples. Students learn to operate the instrument over the full spectrum of use, generating their own images and interpreting patterns. A microscopical investigation of material relevant to the student’s discipline forms the basis of a course project.
NOTE: Responsibility for this course rests with the department of Biology.
Restriction: Student must be admitted to the graduate program or be granted permission of the instructor.

MMS 8140 MARINE NATURAL PRODUCTS CHEMISTRY
The overall goal of the course is to provide a description of the structures and biosynthetic origins of natural products of marine origin. The main classes of natural products will be reviewed with an emphasis on their biological origin as a tool to understanding structures. The biomedical relevance of marine natural products will be discussed along with special topics lectures on such themes as “From lead compound to FDA approval” and “Development of a natural product drug lead”. Additional lectures on biological screening and metabolomics as modern tools in drug discovery, and chromatographic purification of natural products will round out the discussions. Students will be expected to develop a thorough understanding of the biosynthetic origin of all major categories of natural products through case studies.
Cross-listed with Chemistry 4140.  Credit cannot be received for both MMS 8140 and CHEM 4140.
PREREQUISITE:  Admission to graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT:  3

MMS 8240 ADVANCES STUDIES IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides an in-depth analysis of environmental impacts of the major classes of contaminants including methodologies for environmental impact assessment and monitoring. Effects of environmental contaminants are examined at the ecosystem, organismal, cellular, biochemical and molecular levels. Additional emphasis is placed on understanding the fate of contaminants of concern in aquatic and terrestrial environments including their environmental chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, and exposure and uptake pathways by organisms. The course consists of lectures, discussions of peer-reviewed literature, case studies, presentations by students and laboratories.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

2) PhD IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES COURSES
Students will be required to take three (3) mandatory graduate-level courses in Environmental Sciences in addition to one (1) elective course in their disciplinary area. Each student is expected to complete these courses within the first 18 months of the degree. Graduate students are required to register for ESC 8010 – PhD thesis throughout their degree program. Additional required constellation-based courses include ESC 8020 – Communication strategies, ESC 8030 – Current issues in Environmental Impact Assessment, and ESC 8040 – Practical issues surrounding environmental management. Students are also required to take 1 additional ESC elective at the graduate level (see list below).

ESC 8010 PhD THESIS
This is the main science-oriented component of the PhD, and as such, it is a course in which students will conduct an original research project, report orally on this work throughout the course of the degree, culminating in the submission and defence of a dissertation. A formal approval to initiate the research project will be granted after the supervisory committee has been established and a research proposal, including a thorough review of pertinent literature available, is provided by the candidate. Students must register in this course each semester to maintain enrolment in the program. It embodies the research component of this program.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8020 COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES
This course promotes the development of communication skills in the context of environmental issues and exposes students to direct interaction with representatives from industry, government, community, and the social sciences. The course will also provide broad theoretical and practical knowledge needed to resolve disputes as well as skills training in techniques of mediation, facilitation, and negotiation. Beyond the activities of ENV-4330, the graduate-level assessment of this course involves weekly assigned readings, an essay on a selected topic that includes an extensive literature review, and a seminar on the researched topic. Restriction: Student must be admitted to a graduate program in Science.
Cross-listed with ENV 4330.  Credit cannot be received for both ENV 4330 and ESC 8020.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8030 CURRENT ISSUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
This course is intended to review the theory behind Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) through the use of case studies that best exemplify project development that prevent or minimize environmental degradation. This course will examine the needs, methods, regulatory frameworks and social implications of EIA with emphasis on recent Canadian case studies. On completion of this course, students will be familiarized with the concept of EIA (its history, principles, key constructs and main steps), the legislative and institutional context of EIA, and will be able to critically examine EIA cases and identify their implications.
Cross-listed with Environmental Studies 4310.  Credit cannot be received for both ENV 4310 and ESC 8030.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8040 PRACTICAL ISSUES SURROUNDING ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
This course intends to provide hands-on experience to our students by deploying them in NGOs, government agencies, or environmental consulting companies for approximately 75 flexible hours (the equivalent to the number of contact hours typically considered for a course’s lectures and laboratory). The primary goal of this course is to expose students of a given environmental discipline into the multiple aspects involved in the actual issues and decision-making process that take place in agencies outside the academic setting. This unique training period (spread from two weeks to an entire semester) will provide human resources to often resource-limited groups/entities that will be chosen by each supervisory committee according to their relevance for the student research focus. Students are expected to gain unprecedented experience and, to some extent, provide actual input into environmental management. The student will prepare a written report and share their experience by giving a public seminar. The supervisory committee in collaboration with the Faculty of Science Graduate Studies Committee will be responsible for identifying an appropriate placement based on the student’s discipline and interests.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ELECTIVE COURSES

ESC 8620 ADVANCED FRESHWATER ECOLOGY
This course provides advanced study in the ecology of freshwater habitats, particularly those found on Prince Edward Island. The first part of the course concentrates on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of fresh waters, classification of freshwater habitats, and applied limnology. A laboratory/field component includes an introduction to water analysis techniques and field equipment, field water analysis, the collection and analysis of biological samples, and the physical properties of water. The second part is a field/lab project on a limnological topic tailored to the student’s individual program, and consists of an experimental or observational study coupled with a comprehensive literature review, project write-up, and oral presentation.
NOTE: Credit is not given for both Biology 4620 (Limnology) and Biology 8620 and ESC 8620

ESC 8650 ADVANCES IN MARINE ECOLOGY
This course provides an update on relevant areas of ongoing marine research. The first part of the course concentrates on marine ecology topics including benthic-pelagic coupling, dispersal and adult-larval interactions, animal-sediment relationships, biodiversity ecosystem services, encrusting communities and their interactions, and aquatic invasive species. The second part includes participation in regular discussion sessions based on analysis of advanced literature relevant to the discipline and to the student’s particular research. Assignments include an essay relevant (but not restricted) to a student’s field of research, and a seminar on a topic relating general ecological hypotheses to the topic addressed in the essay.
NOTE: Credit will not be given for both Biology 4650 (Marine Community Ecology) and ESC 8650.
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3 (3 hours lecture and 3 hours lab/field trip per week, plus discussion group.)

ESC 8710 ADVANCED STUDIES IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
This course provides an in depth analysis of environmental impacts of the major classes of contaminants including methodologies for environmental impact assessment and monitoring. Effects of environmental contaminants are examined at the ecosystem, organismal, cellular, biochemical and molecular levels. Additional emphasis is placed on understanding the fate of contaminants of concern in aquatic and terrestrial environments including their environmental chemistry, biogeochemical cycles, and exposure and uptake pathways by organisms. The course consists of lectures, discussions of peer-reviewed literature, case studies, presentations by students and laboratories.
Cross-listed with MMS 8240.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8720 ADVANCED STUDIES OF MACROECOLOGY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY
This course examines our current understanding of the patterns of distribution and abundance of organisms from the integrative perspective of macroecology and biogeography. The first discipline is concerned with understanding patterns at large spatial and temporal scales via the use of large quantitative databases and statistical techniques. The second one is concerned with the study of the patterns of distribution of animal species by integrating information on historical events (e.g., plate tectonics), evolutionary processes, as well as ecological and physiological trends.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8730 CONSERVATION GENETICS
Conservation genetics is an emerging and topical field of biology that combines molecular genetic approaches with environmental, evolutionary and ecological research under the umbrella of conservation biology. This course will cover a range of research topics pertaining to the conservation of biodiversity including ecological and landscape genetics, contemporary evolution and human-mediated change, invasion biology, genomics for endangered species, and genetics of captive or isolated populations. The course will introduce students to theoretical and experimental approaches to measuring and managing genetic diversity, as well as cultural and ethical issues in conservation biology through lectures, tutorial and case study discussion. Students will have hands-on experience with DNA and molecular marker analysis techniques, lead in-class discussions, write critical reviews of current research, and develop research proposals for selected questions in conservation genetics.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8750 QUANTITATIVE METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL MOVEMENT
A better comprehension of animal movement is vital to interpreting key ecological and evolutionary processes, such as the spatial-temporal patterns of resource selection, foraging behaviour, and predator-prey interactions. As human activities continually alter landscapes and influence the behaviour and movement patterns of organisms, a variety of pressing ecological and health issues are emerging, such as the spread of invasive species and infectious diseases. Hence, advances in our understanding of animal movement will have direct implications in several disciplines including landscape ecology, conservation biology, and wildlife management, as well as those dealing with public health. In this course, the student will investigate the various methods currently employed to study animal movement in complex landscapes.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8770 VETERINARY BIOSTATISTICS
This course provides the student with a working knowledge of the basic statistical techniques used in veterinary science. Topics include descriptive statistics, inferential statistics non-parametric statistics, analysis of variance, regression and correlation and experimental design.
Cross-listed with graduate level course VHM 8010.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8780 ISLAND BIOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION OF INSULAR SYSTEMS
This course examines the several fundamental patterns and processes that characterize biotas and environments on islands and other broadly defined insular systems. Topics covered include earth history and historical biogeography, speciation, dispersal, extinction, island biogeography, assembly and evolution of insular communities, island effect, adaptive radiation, environmental determinism, conservation biology, marine and terrestrial protected areas, and vulnerability of island biotas to terrestrial and aquatic invasive species. PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8790 ADVANCED TECHNIQUES IN SCANNING ELECTRONIC MICROSCOPY
This course covers the principles of scanning electron microscopy including techniques used for the preparation of biological or other materials for microscopy and the use of specialized software to analyze surface features of samples. Students will learn to operate the instrument over the full spectrum of use and will generate their own images and learn to interpret patterns. A microscopical investigation of material relevant to the student’s discipline will form the basis of a course project.
Cross-listed with MMS 8130 and HB 8250.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

ESC 8800 MOLECULAR BIOTECHNOLOGY
This course examines principles of gene manipulation, and the application of molecular biology in all the fields of biotechnology. Recent developments in medicine, agriculture, industry and basic research are considered. Emphasis is placed on reviewing current literature in the field, particularly on areas more closely related to the natural sciences/ environment.
PREREQUISITE: Admission to a graduate program in Science
HOURS OF CREDIT: 3

 

FACULTY OF ARTS (PsyD) PROGRAM

Doctor of Psychology

Introduction
The Doctor of Psychology (PsyD) is a doctoral program in clinical psychology which is comprised of 26 required courses, a minimum of 750 hours of practica experience, and a fulltime, 12-month predoctoral internship. The program is designed to prepare students to practice as clinical psychologists.

Overview
Infused with a critical lens, and focused throughout on integration of theory, research, and practice across individual and cultural diversities, the Doctor of Psychology Program prepares graduates to practice as clinical psychologists who will meet the needs of individuals, couples, and families, and also of broader communities and populations through the conscientious practice of the human art and science of clinical psychology.

Students will learn to develop, deliver and supervise high quality mental health services including assessment, diagnosis as appropriate, psychotherapeutic intervention and consultation, supervision, and research as well as learn to practice clinical psychology with an emphasis on responding to the broader needs for health and wellness promotion, community strengthening and prevention of psychological distress.

Of particular priority in the program is the development in students of the capacity to respectfully and effectively engage with the diversity of past and current experiences of individuals and communities, including with respect to culture, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, gender, language, religion, sexuality, physical and psychological characteristics, and identity. Students will develop an understanding of prominent systems and learn to work within them to effectively advocate for those requiring psychological services and to inform and shape organizational and public policy. Ethical decision making will be paramount throughout the program.

Students in the program are engaged full-time with the program throughout almost the entirety of the four years of study. The first semesters include five courses per semester; the workload for five graduate- level courses in a professional training program is much greater than that for five senior undergraduate courses. As is the case in other professional training programs such as medicine or veterinary medicine, students in the PsyD will not have time for significant employment outside the program.

Students’ initial practicum placements will take place in the UPEI Psychology Clinic. The program will place students for subsequent practica in sites across Prince Edward Island, unless students initiate an approved placement site outside of the province. For the pre-doctoral internship, students take part with students across North America in the competitive APPIC internship matching program (www.appic.org). Internship placements cannot be guaranteed. A limited number of 12-month internship placements will be available in Prince Edward Island, considerably fewer than there will be students in the program. Applicants are strongly encouraged to apply to internship sites outside the province.

Continuation in the program requires successful completion of, and ethical and professional conduct in, courses, practicum placements, and internship.

Clinical Psychology
Clinical Psychology is a subfield within psychology that applies psychological theories, research and knowledge to various aspects of human functioning. Clinical psychologists are professionals who have doctoral level training in clinical psychology. They work in a wide range of contexts, with many working as professional clinicians, academics, or both. Clinical psychologists work across the spectrum of health and mental health promotion, prevention, assessment, diagnosis as appropriate, intervention, consultation, and supportive care. They are engaged with program design, implementation, and evaluation and with policy and systems change.

Clinical psychologists are trained to address many human problems including depression, anxiety, stress, major mental disorders, learning problems, relational problems, challenges in parenting, addictions, behaviours contributing to chronic disease, developmental challenges, problems related to aging, problems which may arise from abuse or other traumatic experiences, and issues within the forensic field.

Clinical psychologists often work closely with psychiatrists, social workers and other health professionals, often within leadership roles on interdisciplinary teams. They may work with individuals, couples, or groups in public mental health clinics, in private practice, in public education systems, in other community settings, and at universities.

DOCTOR OF PSYCHOLOGY IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Students following this degree program must complete 78 semester hours of required courses, 750 hours of clinical practica, and a full-time 12-month clinical internship.

YEAR 1

Semester 1 (Fall)

PSY 6201 Critical Historical Perspectives on Clinical Psychology
PSY 6202 Ethics and Professional Issues in Clinical Psychology
PSY 6101 Foundations I: Human Development and Personality
PSY 6203 Psychopathology and Diagnosis Across the Lifespan
PSY 6204 Psychometrics and Assessment Practices with Adults

Semester 2 (Winter)

PSY 6102 Foundations II: Social Bases of Behaviour
PSY 6103 Foundations III: Cognitive and Affective Bases of Behaviour
PSY 6206 Quantitative Approaches to Research in Clinical Psychology
PSY 6207 Qualitative Research in Clinical Psychology
PSY 6205 Psychometrics and Assessment Practices with Children and Adolescents

Semester 3 (Summer)

PSY 6501 Assessment Practicum
PSY 6208 Introduction to Psychotherapy: Common Factors

YEAR 2

Semester 1 (Fall)

PSY 7101 Foundations IV: Biological Bases of Behaviour
PSY 7202 Intervention with Children and Adolescents
PSY 7201 Intervention with Adults
PSY 7801 Clinical Dissertation: Research Proposal I
PSY 6501 Assessment Practicum (con’t)

Semester 2 (Winter)

PSY 7203 Advanced Intervention with Adults: Behavioural, Cognitive & Related Approaches
PSY 7204 Advanced Intervention with Adults: Psychodynamic and Related Approaches
PSY 7205 Advanced Intervention with Children and Adolescents
PSY 7802 Clinical Dissertation: Research Proposal II
PSY 7501 Intervention Practicum

Semester 3 (Summer)

PSY 7501 Intervention Practicum (cont.)
PSY 7206 Biological Interventions

YEAR 3

Semester 1 (Fall)

PSY 8801 Clinical Dissertation: Project I
PSY 8201 Clinical Psychology in the Community
PSY 8202 Clinical Psychology for Organizational and Systems Change
PSY 8501 Advanced Practicum I

Semester 2 (Winter)

PSY 8502 Community Intervention Practicum
PSY 8802 Clinical Dissertation: Project II
PSY 8203 Clinical Supervision and Teaching
PSY 8204 Psychology Practice
PSY 8501 Advanced Practicum I

Semester 3 (Summer)

PSY 8503 Advanced Practicum II (optional)

YEAR 4

3 Semesters/
12 month, full-time

PSY 9000 Predoctoral Internship


DOCTOR OF PSYCHOLOGY COURSES

PSY 6101 FOUNDATIONS I: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT & PERSONALITY
Students develop an appreciation of foundational theory and contemporary research in human development and personality, evaluated within the contexts of cultural and individual diversities, and in relation to competent clinical practice. Students assess major theories and models of development and of personality from a life-span perspective, examining typical and atypical growth across development, while considering consider the contribution of this body of knowledge to understanding mental health and effectively treating clinical disorders. We explore what is known, and what is yet unknown, about the applicability of key concepts and findings across cultural and individual diversities. Students reflect upon the implications of theory and research in development and personality for their own development as clinicians, and for the experiences of the clients they will serve.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6102 FOUNDATIONS II: SOCIAL BASES OF BEHAVIOUR
Students develop an appreciation of foundational theory and contemporary research in social bases of behaviour, evaluated within the contexts of cultural and individual diversities, and in relation to competent clinical practice. Students assess major theories and models of social psychology in light of current research and consider their contribution to understanding mental health and effectively treating clinical disorders. We explore what is known, and what is yet unknown, about the applicability of key concepts and findings across cultural and individual diversities. Students reflect upon the implications of theory and research in social psychology for their own development as clinicians, and for the experiences of the clients they will serve.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 6101
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6103 FOUNDATIONS III: COGNITIVE AND AFFECTIVE BASES OF BEHAVIOUR
Students develop an appreciation of foundational theory and contemporary research in cognitive and affective bases of behaviour, evaluated within the contexts of cultural and individual diversities, and in relation to competent clinical practice. Students assess major theories and models of cognition and emotion in light of current research and consider their contribution to understanding mental health and effectively treating clinical disorders. We explore what is known, and what is yet unknown, about the applicability of key concepts and findings across cultural and individual diversities. Students reflect upon the implications of theory and research in cognition and emotion for their own development as clinicians, and for the experiences of the clients they will serve.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 6102
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6201 CRITICAL HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
This course places modern psychotherapy (and assessment) within its social and historical context by examining the various and continually evolving relationships between the “healer” and the “sufferer.” The course begins with a review of the history of “abnormal” behavior from ancient to modern times, followed by a discussion of the emergence of modern psychotherapy in the late 19th century. World War II witnessed the rise of Psychology as the recognized professional body for psychological assessment and treatment. Numerous approaches to psychotherapy were soon developed, including behavior therapy, humanistic psychology, Gestalt therapy, cognitive therapy, systems therapy, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (among others). The course concludes with an analysis of the current conditions of clinical therapeutic practice in North America, and a return to the question of the sufferer’s relationship to the healer. Throughout the course, emphasis is given to the various individual and cultural influences that have characterized the story of clinical psychology so far, and how this narrative is connected to the larger social and historical conditions of Western societies.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6202 ETHICS AND PROFESSIONAL ISSUES IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
This course introduces students to important ethical and professional issues in the practice of clinical psychology. Ethical issues are explored through an in-depth study of the Canadian Code of Ethics for Psychologists. Students learn to resolve ethical dilemmas that are likely to emerge in clinical practice. The course also provides students with an opportunity to learn about legal and professional aspects of the practice of psychology including examination of relevant jurisprudence, regulatory issues within the profession, as well as a range of other topics that characterize the practice of professional psychology. Implications for the profession of an increasingly diverse client base are also considered.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6203 PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND DIAGNOSIS ACROSS THE LIFESPAN
This course introduces the concepts related to the classification of psychopathologies across the lifespan, emphasizing the DSM-5 and other classification systems. Students gain an in-depth familiarity with how psychological disorders are conceptualized and diagnosed and develop a strong understanding of the essential features of psychopathologies which occur across the lifespan. Significant emphasis is placed on a thorough analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of diagnostic systems, examination of categorical versus dimensional understandings of psychological functioning, and exploration of the historical and societal factors that have influenced, and continue to influence, how clinical psychologists conceptualize psychopathology. Students are also introduced to the rapidly growing field of developmental psychopathology, a theoretically and empirically-based framework that provides a unifying perspective for understanding the onset and development of both health and clinical disorder across life.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6204 PSYCHOMETRICS AND ASSESSMENT PRACTICES WITH ADULTS
This course provides students with an opportunity to learn about the foundational theory and practices in psychological assessment of adults and begins with an examination of the nature and limitations of psychological assessment through an in-depth review of psychometric theory. Students are then provided with a survey of prominent approaches to the assessment of various psychological constructs including intelligence, personality (objective and projective), and mental health symptoms. A critically informed analysis of the role, benefits and costs of psychological assessment and diagnosis is undertaken. An emphasis on issues related to psychological assessment with diverse populations is present throughout the course. Students receive hands-on instruction in the administration, scoring and interpretation of major psychological measures used with adults (e.g., tests of intelligence, academic achievement, personality and mental health). Within the context of conducting rigorous and comprehensive assessments, students are also introduced to the concept of “formulation”, namely how clinical psychologists draw on theory and key empirical findings to examine a client’s or family’s problems, how they arose and what may currently be holding them in place. Moreover, the importance of considering cultural and individual differences when assessing clients is examined. Ethical issues that may arise when working with adults in an assessment context are explored.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6205 PSYCHOMETRICS AND ASSESSMENT PRACTICES WITH CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
This course provides students with an opportunity to learn about the foundational theory and practices in psychological assessment of children and adolescents, grounded in application of psychometric theory. Students gain familiarity with a range of psychological assessment devices used with children and adolescents including measures of intelligence, academic achievement and mental health symptoms. Students receive hands-on instruction in the administration, scoring and interpretation of major objective and projective psychological tests used with children and adolescents and develop skills in explaining the tests results and their implications to parents and, at a developmentally appropriate level, children and adolescents. Emphasis is placed on formulating problems experienced by children and adolescents, and looking at them in relation to a developmental psychopathology framework (e.g., individual, parent, parenting/family, and social risk and protective factors). Moreover, the importance of considering individual and cultural diversities when assessing children and adolescents is examined. Ethical issues that may arise when working with children and adolescents in an assessment context are explored.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6206 QUANTITATIVE APPROACHES TO RESEARCH IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
Building upon their undergraduate advanced statistics coursework, students learn to interpret and evaluate research designs and quantitative data analyses most commonly encountered in the clinical literature and in program evaluation. Included are epidemiological methods, single case designs, analysis of correlational data, quasi-experimental and experimental designs, structural equation modelling, and meta-analysis. Emic and etic approaches to research are discussed, and attention is paid to issues related to cross-cultural research, equivalence, and data collection with cultural minorities and vulnerable populations.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6207 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY
This course builds on foundations in qualitative inquiry to support student’s assessment of the transferability of qualitative empirical and theoretical work for psychological practice. Students learn how to interrogate qualitative research for ontology, epistemology, and methodology to assess the authenticity and trust worthiness of published accounts. Analysis of case study, phenomenological, and discursive applications enable students to discern the strength and limitations inherent in each approach. Evaluation of mixed methods is also included in the course, broadly-speaking for their applicability for understanding health and psychopathology, and specifically in areas such as understanding the appropriateness, impact, and effectiveness of psychological interventions.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6208 INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOTHERAPY: COMMON FACTORS
This course introduces students to the theoretical foundations of psychotherapy, including an analysis of the historical and cultural forces that have contributed to the ways that psychotherapy is practiced presently. Throughout the course, a heavy emphasis is placed on the common factors that have been identified as contributors to helpful psychotherapeutic intervention, especially the contributions which have emerged out of the humanistic and person-centered theoretical tradition that emphasize what it means to be in a “helping” relationship. Students gain an understanding of basic psychotherapy concepts including the differences between process and content, the various psychotherapy modalities, the role of assessment and diagnosis in psychotherapeutic intervention, approaches to discerning effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions and the role of the clinical psychologist as a change agent in the lives of clients.The implications of working with diverse clients are emphasized throughout. For instance, students review literature on what we know about the social and cultural factors that influence help-seeking behaviour, including accessing psychological help and accepting traditional forms of assessment and intervention. Students also are encouraged to take an active interest in clients’ background and worldview, and to consider how potential differences in culture-specific beliefs and attitudes, lifestyles, or backgrounds may influence the development of the therapeutic alliance and communication during therapy. 
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 6501 ASSESSMENT PRACTICUM
Students are required to complete a minimum of 200 practicum hours focusing on assessment activities at the UPEI Psychology Clinic working about equally with adult and child/adolescent clients. Students also attend clinical teaching sessions and rounds relevant to specific issues relevant to psychology practice within the UPEI Psychology Clinic. Students also are provided with opportunities to engage in community outreach focused on the provision of intervention to under-served communities.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 6204, PSY 6205
Three semester hours
This course is graded Pass/Fail

PSY 7101 FOUNDATIONS IV: BIOLOGICAL BASES OF BEHAVIOUR
Students develop an appreciation of foundational theory and contemporary research in the neurobiological bases of behaviour, evaluated within the contexts of cultural and individual diversities, and in relation to competent clinical practice. Students assess major theories and models of the neurobiological bases of behaviour in light of current research. Students consider what is known about genetic influences on the development of clinical disorders and attention is paid to the methodologies for studying genetic transmission, as well as the complex interactions between genetic factors and the environment in the development of clinical problems. We explore what is known, and what is yet unknown, about the applicability of key concepts and findings across cultural and individual diversities. Students reflect upon the implications of theory and research in biological bases of behaviour for their own development as clinicians, and for the experiences of the clients they will serve.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 6103
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 7201 INTERVENTION WITH ADULTS
This course reviews major theoretical approaches to psychotherapy with adults including approaches from within the psychodynamic, existential, interpersonal, cognitive-behavioural and person centered traditions. The theoretical foundations of these traditions are explored along with relevant evidence which speaks to their efficacy in the treatment of various psychological problems experienced by adults. Students gain experience in case conceptualization and intervention within each of these theoretical traditions. Moreover, students are encouraged to draw on the conceptual and empirical research base (or lack thereof) that informs our understanding of the impact of social and cultural factors on therapeutic effectiveness. Students are encouraged, through reflection and attention to theory and evolving evidence, to consider how clinical psychologists develop cultural sensitivities and competence in their ability to consider cultural factors when developing working alliances, conducting assessments, and delivering evidence-based interventions. This includes an ability for students of all backgrounds to draw on an awareness of their own cultural values and group affiliations and how these may influence their clinical practice. Ethical issues which are likely to emerge in clinical work with adults are discussed.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 6208
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 7202 INTERVENTION WITH CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
This course considers basic approaches to intervention with children and adolescents through the lens of developmental psychopathology and evidence-based practice. Students gain an understanding of the importance of selecting interventions that are appropriate to what we know about effectiveness for specific clinical problems, the developmental level of the client, and the wider ecology of risk and protective factors that characterize children’s and adolescents’ lives. Major approaches to psychotherapeutic intervention with children and adolescents are reviewed. Students gain experience in the development of basic clinical skills that can be applied within a variety of clinical interventions. Important ethical issues that often emerge in work with children and adolescents are discussed. The importance of cultural and individual diversities in key areas that are often targeted by interventions with children and adolescents are considered, e.g., parenting values, beliefs and practices or family hierarchies and communication patterns. Students also are encouraged to draw on the conceptual and empirical research base (or lack thereof) that informs our understanding of the impact of social and cultural factors on therapeutic effectiveness.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 6208
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 7203 ADVANCED INTERVENTION WITH ADULTS: BEHAVIOURAL, COGNITIVE AND RELATED APPROACHES
This course provides students with an opportunity to gain advanced understanding of psychotherapy approaches that fall within the cognitive and behavioural paradigms. Students learn to apply fundamental techniques to a range of clinical issues across the lifespan. The course emphasizes well-established approaches as well as emerging interventions that have gained prominence and research support. Basic skills are developed through a range of assigned readings and class presentations. Basic intervention skills are taught didactically and practiced during recorded practice sessions. Students gain experience in interventions aimed at modifying thinking, beliefs and behaviours. Integration of emerging approaches and techniques such as those that emphasize mindfulness and virtual-reality-assisted psychotherapy will be undertaken. Implications of cultural and individual diversities for application of behavioural, cognitive, and related approaches are explored.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 7201
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 7204 ADVANCED INTERVENTION WITH ADULTS: PSYCHODYNAMIC AND RELATED APPROACHES
The course provides an in-depth study of the major schools of psychodynamic theories including the work of Freud, Melanie Klein, the post-Klienians and Time Limited Dynamic Psychotherapy. Classic psychoanalysis and contemporary theoretical approaches are covered, thus giving the students a historical perspective of the development and changes within the field of psychodynamic theories and therapy. Case formulation with a psychodynamic orientation and the application of modern psychodynamic interventions in psychotherapy are studied as well. In order for students to gain a hands-on appreciation of the theories students have an opportunity to practice basic psychodynamic interventions in audiovisual recorded practice sessions. Emphasis is placed on helping students to develop skills that allow them to “think dynamically” so that dynamic approaches can be integrated when helpful. Implications of cultural and individual diversities for application of psychodynamic and related approaches are explored.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 7201
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 7205 ADVANCED INTERVENTION WITH CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS
This course provides students with an opportunity to explore specific therapeutic interventions used in the treatment of psychological problems experienced by children and adolescents. Empirically supported approaches to the treatment of childhood behavioural problems, anxiety, depression and other issues impacting children will be reviewed. Students also have an opportunity to learn about approaches that are often used with parents, guardians and others who help children. Specific therapeutic approaches primarily used with adolescents are also reviewed. Students have opportunities to gain experience in practicing some of these techniques through experiences such as class-based role plays and delivery of an empirically supported parenting program to groups of parents. Implications of cultural and individual diversities for interventions with children and adolescents are explored.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 7202
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 7206 BIOLOGICAL INTERVENTIONS
This course focuses primarily on the psychopharmacological approaches to the treatment of mental illnesses. Topics include the basic neurophysiology and mechanisms of drug action on the brain with an emphasis on understanding the mechanisms related to classes of medications often used to treat mental illnesses including antidepressants, anti-anxiety medications, antipsychotics and simulants. Research examining the efficacy and outcome of these medications along with guidelines for combined psychological and pharmacological treatments are reviewed. Students also learn about other established biological interventions such as electroconvulsive therapy as well as emerging biological approaches such as transcranial magnetic stimulation.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 6103
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 7501 INTERVENTION PRACTICUM
Students are required to complete a minimum of 200 practicum hours focusing on intervention activities at the UPEI Psychology Clinic working about equally with adult and child/adolescent clients. Students also attend clinical teaching sessions relevant to specific issues relevant to psychology practice within the UPEI Psychology Clinic. Students are provided with opportunities to engage in community outreach focused on the provision of intervention services to under-served communities.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 7201, PSY 7203
Three semester hours
This course is graded Pass/Fail

PSY 7801 CLINICAL DISSERTATION: RESEARCH PROPOSAL I
The Clinical Dissertation is the major research component in the Doctor of Psychology Program. It is completed during the second and third year of the program and must be completed (via a formal defense) before students leave for internship. The project is carried out using a cohort model in which students develop independent research projects with the support of student colleagues and under the supervision of a graduate faculty member who serves as the Doctoral Research Coordinator. In this course students complete a comprehensive literature review which determines the type and scope of the research to be carried out. The research proposal is presented to the class and other members of the Department of Psychology and approved by the Doctoral Research Coordinator. Student projects must make a novel contribution to the clinical psychology research literature and may develop research within qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods paradigms. Research projects that do not include data gathering, such as novel research syntheses or work toward policy development, may be proposed.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 6206, PSY 6207
Three semester hours

PSY 7802 CLINICAL DISSERTATION: RESEARCH PROPOSAL II
This course is the second in a sequence of four courses leading to the completion of the Clinical Dissertation. Preparations for data gathering are made as required with community partners or other sources of participants. Students who are collecting data will develop a full submission to the Research Ethics Board and revise as required. After receiving REB approval students move into the data gathering phase of their research project. Qualitative and/or quantitative data analysis is carried out using accepted approaches. Students address any gaps in their competencies for completion of the data analysis procedures identified in their research plan. Students completing non-empirical research projects begin work on the novel synthesis of the scholarly material. Students address any gaps in their competencies for knowledge synthesis projects.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 7801
Three semester hours

PSY 8201 CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY IN THE COMMUNITY
The course extends beyond clinical psychology’s focus on the individual so that students may develop a greater understanding of the impacts clinical psychologists may have at the community level. This course allows students to explore established and novel approaches which may be used by clinical psychologists to effectively engage with communities. Topics are likely to include community-based health promotion and prevention, political action, and empowerment in the application of clinical psychology principles to community-based social, mental health, and environmental problems. It also emphasizes values, applied research, and action focused on promoting the welfare of the whole community through organizational, community, and societal-level action. Implications of cultural and individual diversities for application of clinical psychology in the community are explored.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 8202 CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY FOR ORGANIZATIONAL AND SYSTEMS CHANGE
Students explore roles for clinical psychology in development and change of organizations and of systems. We consider questions such as: What is the nature of organizations and systems in the public, not-for-profit, and private sectors? What are opportunities and responsibilities to influence policy and practice leadership? How can research evidence be translated to policy and practice? What is the psychologist’s role when minorities and marginalized communities? How can communication and collaboration be fostered within and across organizations and systems to support health and wellness promotion; prevention of disorder; timely and appropriate assessment, intervention, and consultation; and meaningful support? What is the role of advocacy for clients and populations? Implications of cultural and individual diversities for application of clinical psychology to organizational and systems change are explored.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 8203 CLINICAL SUPERVISION AND TEACHING
The provision of clinical supervision is one of the most important aspects of training in psychology and is one of the core competencies associated with being a clinical psychologist. In this course students are exposed to the current state of the art of clinical supervision. Various models of supervision are reviewed and students gain experience by offering clinical peer supervision to graduate students in earlier years of the doctoral program. The course also provides students with opportunities to engage in the teaching of clinically-relevant material to undergraduate and early graduate students using a variety of pedagogical approaches and techniques. Implications of cultural and individual diversities for clinical supervision and teaching are explored.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 8204 PSYCHOLOGY PRACTICE
In this “capstone” course students explore the many facets of what it means to be a professional clinical psychologist. Emphasis is placed on the psychologist’s scope of practice and considers the specific advocacy approaches which psychologists may use to ensure that their full scope of practice is utilized. Opportunities and challenges associated with working collaboratively with other health professionals within various systems of practice are explored. Students consider the concept of Practice-based Evidence (PBE), namely the application of client-focused research into routine treatment and routine settings, and its relevance to research knowledge and routine practice. Specific professional issues related to the development of, and engagement in, both public setting practice and private practice, are considered. Approaches for integrating an appreciation of cultural and individual diversities, and of ethical decision making practices, across psychology practice are explored.
PREREQUISITE: Acceptance to the Doctor of Psychology Program
Three hours a week
Three semester hours

PSY 8501 ADVANCED PRACTICUM I
Students are required to complete a minimum of 300 practicum hours in a pre-authorized practicum setting that may focus on clinical work with children and adolescents and/or adults. This practicum offers students the opportunity to gain significant exposure to clinical work with a particular population and / or clinical issue. A number of previously established practicum settings are available. Students may also seek out their own clinical placement but must gain formal approval of the placement from the Associate Director of Clinical Experience.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 6501, PSY 7501
Three semester hours
This course is graded Pass/Fail

PSY 8502 COMMUNITY INTERVENTION PRACTICUM
Students are required to complete a minimum of 50 practicum hours involving intervention at the group or community level. This work may involve an intervention focused on improving mental health or an intervention aimed at preventing a mental health problem or at health promotion. Students may collaborate with other students, under the direction of a core faculty member, to work toward community engagement which will allow some form of clinically relevant and empirically supported intervention.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 8201
Three semester hours
This course is graded Pass/Fail
PSY 8503 ADVANCED PRACTICUM II
Students may complete a second advanced practicum consisting of at least 200 practicum hours. The practicum setting may be one that has been previously established or the student may seek out their own clinical placement which must be approved by the Associate Director of Clinical Experience.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 8501
Three semester hours
This course is graded Pass/Fail

PSY 8801 CLINICAL DISSERTATION: PROJECT I
In this third course in the clinical dissertation sequence students carry out data collection and conduct qualitative and/or quantitative analyses appropriate to their projects. Students completing non-empirical research projects continue work on the novel synthesis of the scholarly material.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 7802
Three semester hours

PSY 8802 CLINICAL DISSERTATION: PROJECT II
In this final course in the clinical dissertation sequence students prepare their research projects for a formal defense in front of student colleagues, members of the Department of Psychology faculty, the Doctoral Research Coordinator, and others in the community. The defense includes the submission of a written dissertation report, a concise knowledge translation document designed for a policy or practice audience appropriate to the research project, and a concise presentation of research findings. Following the research presentation students respond to questions from the audience. The quality of the written research report, knowledge translation document, oral presentation and responses to questions will be assessed by a committee, chaired by the Doctoral Research Coordinator and include two other faculty members within the Department of Psychology and, as appropriate, one member of the practice or policy community. This committee determines whether the work fulfills the requirements for the clinical dissertation project.
PREREQUISITE: PSY 8801
Three semester hours

PSY 9000 PREDOCTORAL INTERNSHIP
Doctor of Psychology students complete a full-time 12-month internship which consists of full-time clinical practice under the supervision of registered psychologists.
PREREQUISITE: Permission of the Director of Training
This course is graded Pass/Fail

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